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font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.MsoListBulletCxSpFirst, li.MsoListBulletCxSpFirst, div.MsoListBulletCxSpFirst {mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-type:export-only; margin-top:0cm; margin-right:0cm; margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:18.0pt; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-add-space:auto; text-indent:-18.0pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; mso-list:l0 level1 lfo3; tab-stops:list 18.0pt; text-autospace:none; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.MsoListBulletCxSpMiddle, li.MsoListBulletCxSpMiddle, div.MsoListBulletCxSpMiddle {mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-type:export-only; margin-top:0cm; margin-right:0cm; margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:18.0pt; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-add-space:auto; text-indent:-18.0pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; mso-list:l0 level1 lfo3; tab-stops:list 18.0pt; text-autospace:none; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.MsoListBulletCxSpLast, li.MsoListBulletCxSpLast, div.MsoListBulletCxSpLast {mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-type:export-only; margin-top:0cm; margin-right:0cm; margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:18.0pt; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-add-space:auto; text-indent:-18.0pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; mso-list:l0 level1 lfo3; tab-stops:list 18.0pt; text-autospace:none; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.MsoBodyText, li.MsoBodyText, div.MsoBodyText {mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-link:"Platte tekst Char"; margin-top:0cm; margin-right:0cm; margin-bottom:6.0pt; margin-left:0cm; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; text-autospace:none; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.MsoSalutation, li.MsoSalutation, div.MsoSalutation {mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-link:"Aanhef Char"; mso-style-next:Standaard; margin:0cm; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; text-autospace:none; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.MsoBodyTextFirstIndent, li.MsoBodyTextFirstIndent, div.MsoBodyTextFirstIndent {mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:"Platte tekst"; mso-style-link:"Platte tekst eerste inspringing Char"; margin:0cm; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-indent:14.2pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; text-autospace:none; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.MsoBodyText2, li.MsoBodyText2, div.MsoBodyText2 {mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-link:"Platte tekst 2 Char"; margin:0cm; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-indent:14.2pt; line-height:12.0pt; mso-pagination:none; text-autospace:none; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;} a:link, span.MsoHyperlink {mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; color:blue; text-decoration:underline; text-underline:single;} a:visited, span.MsoHyperlinkFollowed {mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; color:purple; mso-themecolor:followedhyperlink; text-decoration:underline; text-underline:single;} p.MsoPlainText, li.MsoPlainText, div.MsoPlainText {mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-link:"Tekst zonder opmaak Char"; margin:0cm; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; text-autospace:none; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Courier New"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;} p {mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-margin-top-alt:auto; margin-right:0cm; mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto; margin-left:0cm; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} pre {mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-link:"HTML - vooraf opgemaakt Char"; margin:0cm; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Courier New"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:#000020;} p.MsoCommentSubject, li.MsoCommentSubject, div.MsoCommentSubject {mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:"Tekst opmerking"; mso-style-link:"Onderwerp van opmerking Char"; mso-style-next:"Tekst opmerking"; margin:0cm; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-fareast-language:EN-US; font-weight:bold;} p.MsoAcetate, li.MsoAcetate, div.MsoAcetate {mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-link:"Ballontekst Char"; margin:0cm; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:8.0pt; font-family:"Tahoma","sans-serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} span.Kop1Char {mso-style-name:"Kop 1 Char"; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-link:"Kop 1"; mso-ansi-font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; mso-fareast-language:NL; font-style:italic;} span.Kop2Char {mso-style-name:"Kop 2 Char"; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:9; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-link:"Kop 2"; mso-ansi-font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:14.0pt; font-family:"Cambria","serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-language:NL; font-weight:bold; font-style:italic;} span.HTML-voorafopgemaaktChar {mso-style-name:"HTML - vooraf opgemaakt Char"; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-link:"HTML - vooraf opgemaakt"; font-family:"Courier New"; mso-ascii-font-family:"Courier New"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Courier New"; color:#000020; mso-fareast-language:NL;} span.VoetnoottekstChar {mso-style-name:"Voetnoottekst Char"; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-link:Voetnoottekst; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-language:NL;} span.TekstopmerkingChar {mso-style-name:"Tekst opmerking Char"; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-link:"Tekst opmerking";} span.KoptekstChar {mso-style-name:"Koptekst Char"; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-link:Koptekst; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-language:NL;} span.VoettekstChar {mso-style-name:"Voettekst Char"; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-link:Voettekst; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-language:NL;} span.EindnoottekstChar {mso-style-name:"Eindnoottekst Char"; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-link:Eindnoottekst; mso-ansi-font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-language:NL;} span.PlattetekstChar {mso-style-name:"Platte tekst Char"; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-link:"Platte tekst"; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-language:NL;} span.AanhefChar {mso-style-name:"Aanhef Char"; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-link:Aanhef; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-language:NL;} span.PlatteteksteersteinspringingChar {mso-style-name:"Platte tekst eerste inspringing Char"; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-parent:"Platte tekst Char"; mso-style-link:"Platte tekst eerste inspringing"; mso-ansi-font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-language:NL;} span.Plattetekst2Char {mso-style-name:"Platte tekst 2 Char"; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-link:"Platte tekst 2"; mso-ansi-font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; mso-fareast-language:NL;} span.TekstzonderopmaakChar {mso-style-name:"Tekst zonder opmaak Char"; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-link:"Tekst zonder opmaak"; font-family:"Courier New"; mso-ascii-font-family:"Courier New"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:"Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Courier New"; mso-fareast-language:NL;} span.OnderwerpvanopmerkingChar {mso-style-name:"Onderwerp van opmerking Char"; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-parent:"Tekst opmerking Char"; mso-style-link:"Onderwerp van opmerking"; font-weight:bold;} span.BallontekstChar {mso-style-name:"Ballontekst Char"; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-link:Ballontekst; mso-ansi-font-size:8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:8.0pt; font-family:"Tahoma","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Tahoma; mso-hansi-font-family:Tahoma; mso-bidi-font-family:Tahoma;} p.p40, li.p40, div.p40 {mso-style-name:p40; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-margin-top-alt:auto; margin-right:0cm; mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto; margin-left:0cm; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.p9, li.p9, div.p9 {mso-style-name:p9; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-margin-top-alt:auto; margin-right:0cm; mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto; margin-left:0cm; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.p1, li.p1, div.p1 {mso-style-name:p1; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-unhide:no; margin-top:0cm; margin-right:0cm; margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:21.6pt; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-indent:-21.6pt; line-height:12.0pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:30.0pt 50.0pt; text-autospace:none; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.p2, li.p2, div.p2 {mso-style-name:p2; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-unhide:no; margin:0cm; margin-bottom:.0001pt; line-height:12.0pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; text-autospace:none; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.p3, li.p3, div.p3 {mso-style-name:p3; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-unhide:no; margin-top:0cm; margin-right:0cm; margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:14.4pt; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-indent:-36.0pt; line-height:18.0pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:25.0pt 56.0pt; text-autospace:none; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.c4, li.c4, div.c4 {mso-style-name:c4; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-unhide:no; margin:0cm; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:center; line-height:12.0pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; text-autospace:none; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.c5, li.c5, div.c5 {mso-style-name:c5; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-unhide:no; margin:0cm; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:center; line-height:12.0pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; text-autospace:none; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.c3, li.c3, div.c3 {mso-style-name:c3; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-unhide:no; margin:0cm; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:center; line-height:12.0pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; text-autospace:none; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.p6, li.p6, div.p6 {mso-style-name:p6; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-unhide:no; margin-top:0cm; margin-right:0cm; margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:64.8pt; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:justify; text-indent:7.2pt; mso-line-height-alt:10.0pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:9.0pt 17.0pt; text-autospace:none; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.t1, li.t1, div.t1 {mso-style-name:t1; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-unhide:no; margin:0cm; margin-bottom:.0001pt; line-height:12.0pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; text-autospace:none; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.t2, li.t2, div.t2 {mso-style-name:t2; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-unhide:no; margin:0cm; margin-bottom:.0001pt; line-height:16.0pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; text-autospace:none; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.t3, li.t3, div.t3 {mso-style-name:t3; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-unhide:no; margin:0cm; margin-bottom:.0001pt; line-height:16.0pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; text-autospace:none; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.p5, li.p5, div.p5 {mso-style-name:p5; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-unhide:no; margin-top:0cm; margin-right:0cm; margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:50.4pt; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-indent:-21.6pt; 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/* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:Standaardtabel; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} table.MsoTableGrid {mso-style-name:Tabelraster; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-priority:59; mso-style-unhide:no; border:solid black 1.0pt; mso-border-themecolor:text1; mso-border-alt:solid black .5pt; mso-border-themecolor:text1; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-border-insideh:.5pt solid black; mso-border-insideh-themecolor:text1; mso-border-insidev:.5pt solid black; mso-border-insidev-themecolor:text1; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} </style> <![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapedefaults v:ext="edit" spidmax="1027"/> </xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapelayout v:ext="edit"> <o:idmap v:ext="edit" data="1"/> </o:shapelayout></xml><![endif]--> </head> <body bgcolor="#A8BE7E" lang=NL link=blue vlink=purple style='tab-interval: 35.45pt'> <div class=WordSection1> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;mso-themecolor:text1'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <table class=MsoTableGrid border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 style='margin-left:70.9pt;background:white;border-collapse:collapse; border:none;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184;mso-padding-alt:2.85pt 0cm 2.85pt 0cm; mso-border-insideh:none;mso-border-insidev:none'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'> <td width=185 valign=top style='width:92.4pt;background:#143904;padding:2.85pt 0cm 2.85pt 0cm'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Trebuchet MS","sans-serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:white;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><a href="../index.htm"><span style='color:white;text-decoration:none;text-underline: none'>LEWISIANA.NL</span></a><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> </table> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:156.0pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.85pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:14.18gd;mso-para-margin-bottom:0cm;mso-para-margin-left: 6.44gd;mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black;mso-themecolor:text1; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:156.0pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.85pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:14.18gd;mso-para-margin-bottom:0cm;mso-para-margin-left: 6.44gd;mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black;mso-themecolor:text1; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>Quotations and Allusions in<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:24.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>C. S. Lewis, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Miracles: A Preliminary Study<o:p></o:p></i></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:18.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 24.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>(1947, second edition 1960)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:18.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 24.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:18.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 24.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:18.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 24.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:156.0pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:78.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:14.18gd;mso-para-margin-bottom:0cm;mso-para-margin-left: 7.09gd;mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:115%'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:115%;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>As the distance grows between the lifetime of C. S. Lewis and the present day, more and more of the many quotations and allusions in his work are likely to be lost on his readers. The following notes are intended to remedy some of this problem and perhaps provide some further help with regard to <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Miracles: A Preliminary Study</i>, second edition (1960).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:156.0pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:78.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:14.18gd;mso-para-margin-bottom:0cm;mso-para-margin-left: 7.09gd;mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:115%'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:115%;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:156.0pt;margin-bottom: 8.0pt;margin-left:78.0pt;mso-para-margin-top:0cm;mso-para-margin-right:14.18gd; mso-para-margin-bottom:8.0pt;mso-para-margin-left:7.09gd;line-height:115%'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:115%;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>The format of each note is as follows; chapter &amp; paragraph numbers are only given in case of a new paragraph.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:none;border-left:solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 0cm 0cm 4.0pt;margin-left: 78.0pt;margin-right:156.0pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-para-margin-top: 0cm;mso-para-margin-right:14.18gd;mso-para-margin-bottom:0cm;mso-para-margin-left: 7.09gd;mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:115%;tab-stops:3.0cm; border:none;mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm;mso-padding-alt: 0cm 0cm 0cm 4.0pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 14.0pt;line-height:115%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;[cap. #<span style='text-transform:uppercase'>/</span>par.<span style='text-transform: uppercase'> #] first words of paragraph<br> </span></span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:115%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;words or phrases from Lewis s book<br> </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:115%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Note text.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-para-margin-top: 0cm;mso-para-margin-right:14.18gd;mso-para-margin-bottom:0cm;mso-para-margin-left: 7.09gd;mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:115%;border:none;mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm;mso-padding-alt:0cm 0cm 0cm 4.0pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:115%;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:14.0pt;line-height:115%; font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Quotation (if required).</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; line-height:115%;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'> <o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:8.0pt;margin-right:156.0pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:78.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-para-margin-top:8.0pt; mso-para-margin-right:14.18gd;mso-para-margin-bottom:0cm;mso-para-margin-left: 7.09gd;mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:115%'><a name=welcome><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:115%;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>Publication</span></a><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:115%;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'> details about Lewis s essays, papers and sundry shorter writings are given at <a href="http://www.lewisiana.nl/cslessays"><span style='color:windowtext;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>www.lewisiana.nl/cslessays</span></a>. Bible passages are quoted from the Authorized (King James) Version, unless stated otherwise. <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'>Corrections and additions are&nbsp;<a href="../arendsmilde/contact/index.htm"><span style='color:windowtext;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>welcome</span></a></b>, especially with regard to places marked with <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='background:#EEECE1;mso-shading-themecolor:background2'>[...?]</span></b>. A survey of<a href="#updates" target="_self"><span style='color:windowtext; text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>&nbsp;Updates&nbsp;</span></a>is given at the end.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=right style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:156.0pt; margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:78.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-para-margin-top: 5.0pt;mso-para-margin-right:14.18gd;mso-para-margin-bottom:0cm;mso-para-margin-left: 7.09gd;mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:right;line-height:115%'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:115%;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>Arend Smilde&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=right style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:156.0pt; margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:78.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-para-margin-top: 0cm;mso-para-margin-right:14.18gd;mso-para-margin-bottom:0cm;mso-para-margin-left: 7.09gd;mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:right;line-height:115%; mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; line-height:115%;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>Utrecht, The Netherlands&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=right style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:156.0pt; margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:78.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-para-margin-top: 0cm;mso-para-margin-right:14.18gd;mso-para-margin-bottom:0cm;mso-para-margin-left: 7.09gd;mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:right;line-height:115%; mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; line-height:115%;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>December 2011&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=right style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:156.0pt; margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:78.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-para-margin-top: 0cm;mso-para-margin-right:14.18gd;mso-para-margin-bottom:0cm;mso-para-margin-left: 7.09gd;mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:right;line-height:115%; mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:18.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:24.0pt;line-height:115%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div style='margin-left:70.9pt;margin-right:70.9pt'> <div> <div> <div> <div> <div> <div> <div> <div> <div> <div> <div> <div> <div> <div> <div> <div> <div> <div> <div> <div> <div> <div> <div> <div> <div> <div> <div> <div> <div> <div> <div> <div> <div> <div> <div class=MsoNormal style='line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops: 3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; letter-spacing:-.15pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'> <hr size=1 width="100%" noshade style='color:#143904' align=left> </span></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:18.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 24.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:18.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 24.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:19.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>Dedication</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-US'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>Cecil and Daphne Harwood</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'><o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>Cecil Harwood (1898-1975) was a life-long friend of C. S. Lewis s since they met through Owen Barfield in 1919 as students in Oxford. Harwood and his wife Daphne Olivier played a leading role in the dissemination of Anthroposophy and promotion of <span class=SpellE>Anthroposophic</span> education in England. Lewis wrote about him in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Surprised by Joy</i> (1955), chapter 13; Harwood wrote about Lewis and also about Anthroposophy in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>C. S. Lewis at the Breakfast Table</i>, ed. James T. Como (1979, republished 2005 as <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Remembering C. S. Lewis</i>). See also Walter Hooper s short biographies of Harwood in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>C. S. Lewis: A Companion and Guide</i> (1996), pp. 675-679, and in Lewis s <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Collected Letters</i> I, pp. 998-1000f.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:18.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>Book s motto<o:p></o:p></span></p> <h1 style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left: 70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:0cm;line-height:130%;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";font-style:normal;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></h1> <h1 style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left: 70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:0cm;line-height:130%;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Among the hills a meteorite</span></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></h1> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>The poem appeared</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'> in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Time and Tide </i>on 7 December 1946, five months before <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Miracles</i> was published. <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Time and Tide</i> was a British political and literary magazine founded in 1920. It began as a feminist and left-wing weekly but gradually moved to a more right-wing and Christian position. Its wide range of contributors over the years included G.&nbsp;B. Shaw, Nancy Astor, Virginia Woolf, D. H. Lawrence, Rebecca West, Robert Graves, Charlotte Haldane, Naomi <span class=SpellE>Mitchison</span>, George Orwell and many others. Lewis contributed essays, reviews and poetry for twenty years, beginning with the essay  The Necessity of Chivalry (as  Notes on the Way ) in August 1940.</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:18.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Chapter 1: The Scope of this Book<span style='mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[1/4] here is an example<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>In a popular commentary on the Bible<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Lewis is perhaps referring to a commentary which he criticized in a somewhat similar way in a paper of 1959,  Modern Theology and Biblical <span class=SpellE>Critcism</span> (later published as  Fern-seed and Elephants ). He there quotes from what he calls  already a very old commentary . This was identified by Walter Hooper as <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>A New Commentary on Holy Scripture</i>, ed. Charles Gore et al. (S.P.C.K., London 1928), and more specifically to Walter Lock s essay on the Gospel of John which, in turn, refers to James Drummond, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>An Inquiry into the Character and Authorship of the Fourth Gospel</i> (1903).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:18.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Chapter 2: <span style='mso-bidi-font-weight:bold;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>The Naturalist and the <span class=SpellE>Supernaturalist</span></span><span style='mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[CHAPTER MOTTO]</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>roland quizz</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'> , Giant-Land</span></i></b><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></i></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Roland Quiz (not <span class=SpellE>Quizz</span>; the first edition of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Miracles</i> has the correct spelling) is the pseudonym of Richard M. Howard <span class=SpellE>Quittenton</span> (1833-1914). His book <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Giant-land: or the Wonderful Adventures of Tim Pippin</i> was first published in 1874.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span>In a letter of 28 March 1937 to his friend Arthur Greeves, Lewis mentioned a recent new edition of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Giant-land</i> and said he hoped to get hold of it one day. On 20 December 1943 he told Arthur he had found it in an Oxford library and read it  while invigilating at an exam . He remembered from his childhood days a volume of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Juvenile Rhymes and Little Stories</i> by Quiz, and was interested to find a sequel in the present book. It explained  certain mysterious allusions to the Granite City and the Subterranean City which used to fascinate me (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Collected Letters</i> III, pp. 213-214 and 594-595). Almost ten years later the episode of the quotation must have inspired Lewis s own subterranean scene in his fifth Narnian story, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Silver Chair</i> (1953), chapter 12,  The Queen of <span class=SpellE>Underland</span> .<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>2/3] i begin by considering<o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>I begin by considering the following sentences</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>The word  Nature is the subject of the first and longest chapter in Lewis s <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Studies in Words</i> (1960), pp. 24-74 in the 1967 second edition.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[2/7] the difference between naturalism<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>to produce at some stage a great cosmic consciousness, an indwelling  God arising from the whole process</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>See note to [4/10] <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>an Emergent God</i>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span>Lewis also mentioned the idea expressed here in his wartime essay  <u><a href="../essayquotes#funeral"><span style='color:windowtext'>The Funeral of a Great Myth</span></a></u> (a mock funeral oration for evolutionism as a theory of universal progress). Believers in the myth, Lewis submits, are apt to hold not only that our present level of reason, virtue, art and civilization is the product of savage and indeed inorganic beginnings, but that today s reason, virtue etc. in their turn must be  the crude or embryonic beginnings of far better things  perhaps Deity itself  in the remote future. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>the one original or self-existent thing</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>The idea of  self-existence is developed in chapter 4, par. 6 (</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform: uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>this question almost</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>):<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>... what exists on its own must have existed from all eternity; for if anything else could make it begin to exist then it would not exist on its own but because of something else.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>2/12] in that sense there might<o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>anything Mr. Pickwick says in<span style='mso-bidi-font-style:italic'> Pickwick Papers</span> to anything Mrs. Gamp hears in <span style='mso-bidi-font-style: italic'>Martin</span> <span class=SpellE><span style='mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>Chuzzlewit</span></span></span></i></b><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></i></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB'>The Pickwick Papers</span></i><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'> (1837) and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Martin <span class=SpellE>Chuzzlewit</span></i> (1844) are novels by the 19th-century British novelist Charles Dickens (1812-1870).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:justify;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:18.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 15.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>Chapter 3: The Cardinal Difficulty of Naturalism</span><i><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:16.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><o:p></o:p></span></i></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line; mso-bidi-font-weight:bold;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>[CHAPTER title]</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line; mso-bidi-font-weight:bold;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold; mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>The title of this chapter in the first edition was  The Self-Contradiction of the Naturalist .<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line; mso-bidi-font-weight:bold;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line; mso-bidi-font-weight:bold;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>[CHAPTER MOTTO]</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line; mso-bidi-font-weight:bold;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>We cannot have it </span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>both ways, and no sneers at the limitations of logic... amend the dilemma.  <span style='text-transform:uppercase'>i. a. richards</span>, <span style='mso-bidi-font-style: italic'>Principles of Literary Criticism,</span> chap. xxv.<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoEndnoteText style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>Ivor Armstrong Richards (1893-1979), English literary critic. His <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Principles of Literary Criticism</i> (1924) and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Practical Criticism</i> (1929) represented much that Lewis disliked and rejected in the modern theory and practice of literary criticism. Lewis <span class=SpellE>polemized</span> with Richards in several places, notably in his essay  <a href="../essayquotes#culture"><span style='color:windowtext'>Christianity and Culture</span></a> (1940), in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>A Preface to Paradise Lost</i> (1942), chapter 8, and in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>The Abolition of Man</i> (1943), chapter 2, note 2. In choosing this motto for his crucial chapter 3 in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Miracles</i>, Lewis was hoping to fortify his theist position with a testimony from the man he once called the  great atheist critic . He was often careful to point out specific points which he appreciated in Richards s work in spite of profound differences. A 1939 letter to Richards is printed in Lewis s <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Collected Letters</i> III, p. 1536.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoEndnoteText style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 5.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>[</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>3/2] one threat against strict<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>One threat against strict Naturalism has recently been launched</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Lewis is referring early-20th-century developments in physical science connected with the names of Max Planck (quantum physics) and Alfred Einstein (theory of relativity). The meaning of these developments as a possible  threat against strict Naturalism was famously expounded in Whitehead s <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Science and the Modern World</i> (1925), mentioned in a note to chapter 13.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>3/4] it is clear that everything<o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>the Spanish Armada</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>The <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Armada</i> was the large fleet of warships sent by King Philip II of Spain against England in 1588 to escort an invasion from the Continent. It sustained fatal blows during combat in the English Channel and was further reduced by south-western storms in the North Sea. A considerable remnant sailing round the British isles escaped back home. Two further <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Armadas</i> were sent to Ireland in 1596 and 1597, both driven back by gales.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>We infer Evolution from fossils</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>While this was still largely true at the time of writing (ca. 1945), developments in science and technology from the 1950s on have reduced the role of fossils to that of a mere  bonus for evolution biology;  the fossil record could be one big gap, and the evidence for evolution would still be overwhelmingly strong  Richard Dawkins, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Ancestor s Tale; A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Life</i> (2004),  The General Prologue .<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>3/7] thus a strict materialism<o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Thus a strict materialism refutes itself<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 8.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>From this point onward  after the chapter s first six paragraphs  the rest of chapter 3 is a radical rewriting and expansion of the original text as published in 1947 (see illustration below). The discarded part of the chapter comprised 1,759 words in ten paragraphs; its replacement as published since 1960 comprises 3,698 words in twenty-five paragraphs. The revision was clearly inspired, after more than a decade, by Lewis s public debate with philosopher Elizabeth Anscombe in the Oxford Socratic Club meeting of 2 February 1948. Much has been written about this debate and its place in Lewis s career; in 2011 the <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'><a href="http://www.inklings-studies.com/" target="_blank"><span style='color:windowtext'>Journal of Inklings Studies</span></a></i> devoted a special issue to the subject (Vol. I <span class=SpellE>nr</span>. 2). 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margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:center; line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;color:#143904; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Dustjacket of </span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;color:#143904;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Miracles<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>, first edition, published on 12 May 1947<o:p></o:p></i></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt; margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:center; line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;color:#143904; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><a href="Miracles1947jacket.jpg"><span style='color:#143904;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>(</span><span style='color:#143904'>click here</span><span style='color:#143904;text-decoration: none;text-underline:none'> for larger image)</span></a><o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Professor Haldane</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'> <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>... Possible Worlds</i></b><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoEndnoteText style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>J. B. S. Haldane (1895-1964) was a British geneticist, Professor of Genetics and then of Biometry at University College, London from 1933 to 1957, and a zealous populariser of science. <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Possible Worlds</i> is a volume of essays published in 1927; the quote comes from chapter XXIX,  When I Am Dead (p. 220 in the U.S. edition of 1928). Lewis also quoted these words from Haldane in a letter of 13 June 1946 to <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>The Oxford Magazine</i> (cf. <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Collected Letters</i> II, p. 715).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoEndnoteText style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span>In the years around 1930, Haldane repeated the same reasoning in an essay called  Some Consequences of Materialism , published in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Inequality of Man </i>(1932):<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoEndnoteText style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt; margin-bottom:4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB'>I am not myself a Materialist because, if Materialism is true, it seems to me that we cannot know that it is true. If my opinions are the result of the chemical processes going on in my brain, they are determined by the laws of chemistry, not those of logic. ... To put the matter in another way, if a super-biochemist made a working model of me, atom for atom, this robot would, on a Materialistic view, have all my memories. This may be the case, but if so no knowledge is possible. (pp. 157-158 in Pelican edition, 1937)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoEndnoteText style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>When this essay was reprinted as  Some Reflections on Materialism in the 1934 volume <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Fact and Faith</i>, Haldane added a footnote to this paragraph stating that<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoEndnoteText style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt; margin-bottom:4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB'>I do not now find this argument as convincing as I did when I wrote it.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoEndnoteText style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>Undoubtedly the change of mind was one of those alluded to in Haldane s preface to the 1934 volume: he there points out that, in addition to the state of science,<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoEndnoteText style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt; margin-bottom:4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB'>My philosophical views have also changed and, unless my brain hardens prematurely, will go on changing for some years to come. For one thing, the progress of physics, by showing that matter does not possess various properties attributed to it by metaphysicians, has rendered Materialism a good deal more plausible than seemed likely even ten years ago. For another, I have begun to assimilate Dialectical Materialism, a doctrine very different from the Mechanistic Materialism of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, and to my mind far more plausible.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoEndnoteText style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>See also Richard Jeffery,  C. S. Lewis and the Scientists (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>The Chronicle of the Oxford C. S. Lewis Society</i> Vol. 2, <span class=SpellE>Nr</span>. 2, May 2005, pp. 15-19). For a broader treatment of Haldane, see Mark B. Adams,  <a href="http://www.springerlink.com/content/x32221v564710314/?p=0922cd9bad634bed87348e888a309d36&amp;pi=1"><span style='color:windowtext'>Last Judgment: The Visionary Biology of J. B. S. Haldane</span></a> , </span><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Journal of the History of Biology</span></i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'> Vol. 33, No. 3 (December 2000), 457 491.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoEndnoteText style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 5.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>[</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>3/13] </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>but unfortunately the two<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>You say that because ... you are</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'> a capitalist, a hypochondriac, etc.</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Lewis was fond of exposing this faulty way to refute criticism. He invented a name for it,  Bulverism , which was the title of a an essay published on 29 March 1941. It was also the subject of his next publication: the first  Screwtape letter, published on 2 May 1941.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>3/16] but it can be this<o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>tinnitus</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>A affection of the hearing organ, often incurable, producing the patient s perception of some particular sound  a hissing, beeping, rumbling, or whatever  without any external causes.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>3/18] it is agreed on all hands<o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'> evolved by natural selection</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>The theory of natural selection was not at first intimately linked to any particular idea of evolution; it merely accounted for the variety of life forms, including the great majority of them that is extinct. Darwin s <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Origin of Species</i> (1859) does not contain as single instance of the words  evolution or  evolve , except for the book s very last word, probably inspired by Herbert Spencer.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>3/21] but if they did<o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>there was a hot summer in 1959</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Lewis was actually experiencing the heat of that summer while he was revising <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Miracles</i> and rewriting the present chapter. He submitted the revised text to his publisher on 8 August 1959; see <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Collected Letters</i> III, p. 1072.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>3/23] but the very attempt<o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>If ... you put yourself outside it, there is then no way, except by begging the question, of getting inside again<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Lewis used a partly inversed image of  inside and  outside when arguing for the timeless reality of basic morality, as in his essay  <a href="../essayquotes/index.htm#ethics"><span style='color:windowtext'>On Ethics</span></a> (in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Christian Reflections</i>):<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Supposing we can enter the vacuum and view all Ethical Systems from the outside, what sort of motives can we then expect to find for entering any one of them? One thing is immediately clear. We can have no <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>ethical</i> motives for adopting any of these systems. It cannot, while we are in the vacuum, be our duty to emerge from it. ... A man with no ethical allegiance can have no </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>ethical motive for adopting one. If he had, it would prove that he was not really in the vacuum at all.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform: uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>3/24] </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>a still humbler position<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>a Sputnik</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>The Russian <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Sputnik</i> <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>I</i>, launched in October 1957, was the first operational spaceship. <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Miracles</i> was first published ten years earlier. While rewriting chapter 3 in 1959 Lewis introduced some recent examples.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform: uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>3/25] but then, equally<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>discovered from practice</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>This </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>is very probably a <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'>typo</b>: the obvious reading is  <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'>divorced</b> from practice . This is also suggested in </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>Steven Jon James <span class=SpellE>Lovells</span> quotation of the passage in his Ph.D. thesis <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Philosophical Themes from C. S. Lewis</i> (Univ. of Sheffield, 2003; available <a href="http://myweb.tiscali.co.uk/annotations/content/phd_thesis.pdf" target="_blank"><span style='color:windowtext'>online</span></a>), p. 159, and by Richard <span class=SpellE>Purtills</span> quotation in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>C. S. Lewis and the Case for the Christian Faith</i> (1985), p. 26.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;layout-grid-mode: line'>[</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>3/26] on these terms<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>from it [reason] the orderliness of Nature, which alone enables us to know her, is derived</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>While the derivation is here presented in its purely theoretical aspect, Lewis must have been thinking also of the historical side as sketched by Whitehead in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Science and the Modern World</i> (1925). As Lewis points out toward the end of chapter 13, paraphrasing Whitehead:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Men became scientific because they expected Law in Nature, and they expected Law in Nature because they believed in a Legislator.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:19.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 15.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Chapter 4: <span style='mso-bidi-font-weight:bold;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>Nature and <span class=SpellE>Supernature</span></span></span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[CHAPTER MOTTO]</span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform: uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>r. g. collingwood</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>, <span style='mso-bidi-font-style: italic'>The Idea of Nature</span></span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line;mso-bidi-font-style: italic'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=a0 style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span class=f11><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>Robin George Collingwood (1889-1943), philosopher and historian, was Waynflete Professor of metaphysics and a fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford, from 1935 till 1941. As a thinker he was clearly congenial to Lewis, who occasionally quoted him approvingly. According to Michael D. Aeschliman (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Restitution of Man: C. S. Lewis and the Case Against Scientism</i>, 1983, p. 59), Lewis was always  attacking precisely those fallacies and that scientific dogmatism that Collingwood abhorred . For an example of this, see note to [7/8] <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Ptolemy</i>. Although they were fellows of the same college, very few traces of personal contact between the two men can be found in published sources. After Collingswood s early death, his Waynflete chair eventually went to Gilbert Ryle, whom Lewis regarded as the very reverse of a congenial thinker.</span></span><span class=f11><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;line-height:130%;color:windowtext; mso-ansi-language:EN-US'><o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=a0 style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span class=f11><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span>It was while <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Miracles</i> was in preparation that Collingswood s <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Idea of Nature</i> was published posthumously in 1945. In the final section of his final chapter, Collingwood rounds off what he calls an  interim report on the history of the idea of nature . Noting that we have  no guarantee that the spirit of natural science will survive the attack which now, from so many sides, is being made upon the life of human reason he then asks:  Where do we go from here? The opening sentence of his answer is the sentence quoted by Lewis.<o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=a0 style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:18.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>[</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>4/1] if our argument<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>acts of reasoning are not...</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>the first edition, the chapter s opening sentence was<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>If our argument has been sound, rational thought or Reason is not interlocked with the great interlocking system of irrational events which we call Nature.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>This was immediately followed by  I am not maintaining that consciousness etc., the fourth sentence in the revised edition. The change reflects the radical revision of chapter 3 (see note to [3/7] <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Thus a strict materialism</i> etc.).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>between reason and the whole mass of non-rational events</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>While revising <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Miracles</i> for the 1960 edition, Lewis changed the word  irrational into  non-rational throughout chapters 4 and 5. The first instance of  irrational in the old chapter 4 was discarded along with most of the opening sentence (see previous note); the next instance was the present one, which originally read  the whole mass of irrational events .<span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span>There were further small changes: for example, in the present fragment  reason was substituted for  Reason .<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>4/4] i am only too well aware<o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>hankering for a universe which is all of a piece</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>This idea is developed in chapter 9,  A Chapter not strictly Necessary .<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Bacon warned us ... <span class=SpellE><span style='mso-bidi-font-style: italic'>Novum</span></span><span style='mso-bidi-font-style:italic'> Organum</span><o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Francis Bacon (1561-1626), English statesman, philosopher and essayist. His <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Novum</i></span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> Organum </i>( New Instrument ) is a philosophical treatise in Latin, first published in 1620 and later as the second part of his unfinished <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Instauratio</i></span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> Magna</i>, whose first part is a Latin enlargement of<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> The Advancement of Learning</i> (1605). A systematic exposition of ideas from <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Advancement</i>, the <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Organum</i> offers a method of extending knowledge. The defects of the human mind are described (in I.35) as four types of  idols that have to be identified and rejected: idols of the tribe, of the cave, of the market-place and of the theatre. The passage quoted is from I.45, where Bacon starts his discussion of the  idols of the tribe , i.e. misconceptions that  arise from human nature as such .<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Science itself has already made reality appear less homogeneous</span></i></b><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></i></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>This has been explained in chapter 3, second paragraph.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>4/5] if you can, even</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>self-existent Reason</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'> Self-existence was first mentioned in chapter 2, par. 7 (</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform: uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>the difference between</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>):  The <span class=SpellE>Supernaturalist</span> ... believes that the one original or self-existent thing is on a different level from, and more important than, all other things and par. 9:  ...those who believed in many gods very seldom, in fact, regarded their gods as ... self-existent. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>4/6] this question almost</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>which neither slumbers nor sleeps</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>cf. Psalm 121:4.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Behold, he that <span class=SpellE>keepeth</span> Israel shall neither slumber nor sleep.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[4/7] some people may here raise</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>what </span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Kant called  the I <span style='mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>think <o:p></o:p></span></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), German philosopher, in the second edition (1787) of his <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Kritik</i></span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'> der <span class=SpellE>reinen</span> <span class=SpellE>Vernunft</span></i>, I,  <span class=SpellE>Transzendentale</span> <span class=SpellE>Elementarlehre</span> , 16-18; or 12-14 in the 1855 translation by <span class=SpellE>Meiklejohn</span>, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Critique of Pure Reason</i>, I,  Transcendental Doctrine of Elements :<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=DE style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:DE'>Das: Ich denke, <span class=SpellE>mu</span> alle meine Vorstellungen begleiten knnen; denn sonst wrde etwas in mir vorgestellt werden, was gar nicht gedacht werden knnte&nbsp;...</span></i><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'><span lang=DE style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:DE'><o:p></o:p></span></i></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 14.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-US'> The  I think must accompany all my representations, for otherwise something would be represented in me which could not be thought&nbsp;...</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>4/10] </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>at this point it is tempting</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>an<span style='mso-bidi-font-style:italic'> Emergent</span> God ... (Notice, Modern Reader ...)<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm;mso-layout-grid-align:none'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>Lewis was almost certainly alluding to the philosophers Samuel Alexander (1859-1938), author of <i>Space, Time and Deity</i> (1920), C. Lloyd Morgan (1852-1936), author of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Emergent Evolution</i> (1923), and perhaps also of the philosophy of A. N. Whitehead (1861-1947): <span class=SpellE>pantheistically</span>-minded thinkers who were taking account of recent developments in biology and the physical sciences.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm;mso-layout-grid-align:none'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span>Lloyd Morgan and Alexander were lifelong friends and both works mentioned originated as Gifford Lectures delivered at the University of Glasgow. The concluding sentences of Alexander s large two-volume work are<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm;mso-layout-grid-align:none'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>In the hierarchy of qualities the next higher quality to the highest attained is deity. God is the whole universe engaged in process towards the emergence of this new quality, and religion is the sentiment in us that we are drawn towards him, and caught in the movement of the world to a higher level of existence.</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm;mso-layout-grid-align:none'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>While the term  Emergent God does not actually appear in Alexander s book, he does point out in his preface to the 1927 new edition that  the concept of deity ... is part of the whole conception of emergence initiated by Mr. Lloyd Morgan ; later in the book he explains that he  use[d] the word  emergent after the example of Mr Lloyd Morgan (vol. 2, <span class=SpellE>ch.</span> 1, note 7).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm;mso-layout-grid-align:none'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span>For his part, Morgan in his <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Emergent Evolution</i> (</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'> II</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB'>) summarizes Alexander:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>A</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language: EN-US'>s mental evolution runs its course, there emerge, at the reflective stage of mind, the  tertiary qualities  ideals of truth, of beauty, and of the ethically right  having relations of  value. And beyond this, at or near the apex of the evolutionary pyramid of which space-time is the base, the quality of deity  the highest of all  emerges in us the latest products of evolution up to date.</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-US'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm;mso-layout-grid-align:none'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB'>Alexander in his 1927 preface </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>stressed </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>that<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm;mso-layout-grid-align:none'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>God as actually possessing deity does not exist, but is an ideal, is always becoming: but God as the whole universe tending towards deity does exist. Deity is a quality, and God a being. Actual God is the forecast and, as it were, divining of ideal God.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm;mso-layout-grid-align:none'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>Lewis dismissed Alexander s thought briefly in a letter of 4 January 1947 to Ruth Pitter (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Collected Letters</i> II, p. 754):<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm;mso-layout-grid-align:none'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>By  Deity he means  whatever Nature is going to do next. Deity <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>was</i> an organism in the pre-organic period, and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>was</i> mammals in the saurian period, and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>was</i> man among the apes and now is the super man. It s all nonsense ...<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>by that, as you will see later, there hangs a tale<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>cf. Shakespeare, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>As You Like It</i> II.7, 26,  ...and thereby hangs a tale. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[4/13] the relations which</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>a mahout visiting his own elephant<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'> Mahout is derived from the Hindi word <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>mahut</i></span>,<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> </i>an elephant driver or keeper in India.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>4/14] to believe that nature<o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>better solutions of the problem of evil</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Lewis s own contribution was <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Problem of Pain</i> (1940), his debut as a Christian apologist.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>4/15] i do not maintain</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>the story in Genesis  as St. Jerome said ... told in the manner  of a popular poet </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Hieronymus of <span class=SpellE>Stridon</span> (c. 347-420), or St. Jerome, was perhaps the greatest scholar among the Latin Church Fathers. Living and working in Bethlehem from 386 until his death, he made the Latin translation of the Bible known as the Vulgate, which was the standard Bible text for Western Christendom for the whole medieval period.  Lewis was certainly wrong in attributing the assertion about Genesis to Jerome. The mistake appears to be due to his misreading of a passage in the </span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-font-kerning:18.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Letters to <span class=SpellE>Radulphus</span> on the Mosaic Account of Creation</span></i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-font-kerning:18.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'> by the English scholar John </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Colet (1467-1519). For further details see <a href="http://www.lewisiana.nl/jerome"><span style='color:windowtext'>www.lewisiana.nl/jerome</span></a> .</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:18.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 15.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>Chapter 5: <span style='layout-grid-mode:line;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>A Further Difficulty in Naturalism</span></span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 15.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line; mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[CHAPTER MOTTO]</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>r. niebuhr</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>, An <span style='mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>Interpretation of Christian Ethics</span><o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Reinhold Niebuhr (1892-1971), American theologian. The book quoted appeared in 1936. In a letter of 14 January 1940 Lewis wrote that he was reading it as his  Sunday book and found it  very disagreeable but not unprofitable ; in 1958 he wrote that it was the only of Niebuhr s books he had ever read and  on the whole, reacted against it (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Collected Letters</i> II, 324 and III, 979).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[5/1] some people regard</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>logical thinking as the deadest and driest of our activities</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Cf. the motto to chapter 3, on  sneers at the limitations of logic (I.&nbsp;A. Richards).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[5/6] such a doctrine<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>The Naturalist can, if he chooses, brazen it out<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>This passage has a very strong resemblance to chapter 2 in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>The Abolition of Man</i> (1943), the book in which Lewis gave his fullest treatment to the theme of/7 the present chapter in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Miracles</i>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[5/7] but then they must stick</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'> <span style='text-transform:uppercase'>to it<o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Mr. H.&nbsp;G. Wells spent a long life doing so with passionate eloquence and zeal<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Herbert George Wells (1866-1946), novelist and celebrated British pioneer of science fiction. An amusing picture of his zeal is given in Julian Huxley s <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Memories</i> (1970), chapter 12, describing their collaboration on <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Science of Life</i>, a encyclopaedic work on biology:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>...returning from early discussions about the machinery of collaboration, I could not help thinking:  What am I doing with this little philistine? But the next minute, recalling the compulsive enthusiasm, the convincing certainty which one recognizes in men of great achievements, I would say to myself:  Yes, but what genius he is! (Lenin made identical remarks when H.G. visited him in Russia.)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Wells had just died when <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Miracles</i> appeared. During his last years, the Second World War and the atomic bombs of 1945 made him increasingly pessimistic about humanity; his last works was titled <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Mind at the End of its Tether</i> (1945).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Franco</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Francisco Franco (1892-1975), Spanish general, became dictator of Spain in 1939 after the reactionary right-wing <span class=SpellE>Falangists</span> had emerged victorious from the Spanish Civil War.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:18.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 15.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>Chapter 6: <span style='layout-grid-mode:line;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Answers to misgivings<o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[CHAPTER MOTTO]</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>aristotle</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>, <span style='mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>Metaphysics, </span>I (<span class=SpellE>Brevior</span>) <span class=SpellE>i</span><o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>The reference is perhaps wrong: Aristotle s <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Metaphysics</i> has no <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Brevior</i></span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> </i>( shorter ) version, and the passage can be found at the beginning of Book II, section 1. In the traditional numbering it is section 993b.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>6/2] the rational and moral element</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>the boundaries of Cornwall and Devonshire</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>The two counties that form the southwestern tip of England; Devonshire is more commonly called Devon. The border, from <span class=SpellE>Bude</span> in the north to Plymouth in the south along the winding river Tamar, dates from the 10th century and is indeed full of  dents and  bulges  though hardly more so than many another old border in England or elsewhere.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>6/4] when you are looking at a garden</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>a story told about a Redskin</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;background: #EEECE1;mso-shading-themecolor:background2;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><a href="#welcome" target="_self"><span style='color:windowtext'>[...?]</span></a></span></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>[</span></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'>6/5] all these instances show</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>the Sixteenth Century, when Science was born ... to know Nature and to master her</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>In the last chapter of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Abolition of Man</i> (1943), Lewis discussed the birth of Science at slightly grater length. As a medievalist engaged in writing a standard work on 16th-century English literature, Lewis could claim some professional authority for this statement. However, for his view of the birth of science and its role in the modern world, he was almost certainly relying also on Alfred North Whitehead s <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Science and the Modern World</i>. He quotes this book in chapters 9 and 13, below; on a later occasion he called it  a profound book (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>English Literature in the Sixteenth Century</i>, Bibliography V.3,  Philosophy , p. 618).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:18.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 15.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Chapter 7: <span style='mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>A Chapter of Red Herring</span></span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>s<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[CHAPTER MOTTO]</span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform: uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Thence came forth <span style='mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>Maul,</span> a giant ... <span style='text-transform:uppercase'>bunyan</span><o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoBodyText2 style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:0cm;line-height:130%; tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%'>From John Bunyan s <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Pilgrim s Progress</i>, Part Two (1684), an episode near the end of the Fifth Stage.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBodyText2 style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:0cm;line-height:130%; tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>[</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>7/5] the idea that the progress</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>St. Joseph discovered that his fiance was going to have a baby<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Matthew 1:18-25. See note to [15/9] <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Virgin Birth</i>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>7/6] if the miracles were offered</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>man-eating ants and gryphons in Scythia, etc.</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Some of these examples come from the <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Histories</i> of Herodotus, a Greek traveller and writer of the fifth century BC; e.g. the man-eating (or in any case very large and dangerous) ants are mentioned in Book III, 102-105, the gryphons of Scythia in Book IV, 13 and 17.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'> know not a man. <o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Luke 1:34.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Then said Mary unto the angel, How shall this be, seeing I know not a man?<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[7/8] whatever its value may be</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Ptolemy ... the whole earth ... a point with no magnitude<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Claudius Ptolemaeus, ancient mathematician, astronomer and geographer of the second century AD. He was a Roman living in Alexandria, Egypt, and wrote in Greek. The reference is to <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Almagest</i> I.5. Lewis often drew attention to this fact about medieval cosmology both in his apologetic and scholarly work  e.g. in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Problem of Pain</i> (1940), chapter 1, and in his 1956 lecture  Imagination and Thought in the Middle Ages .<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span>There is a striking resemblance between such places and a passage in Collingwood s <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Idea of Nature</i>, II.1, 3 (cf. Lewis s motto to chapter 4):<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>The philosophical significance of this new astronomy [i.e. Copernicus s work of on the solar system, in the 16th century] was profound, but it has often been misunderstood. It is commonly said that its effect was to diminish the importance of the earth in the scheme of things and to teach man that he is only a microscopic parasite on a small speck of cool matter revolving round tone of the minor stars. This is an idea both philosophically foolish and historically false. Philosophical foolish, because no philosophical problem, whether connected with the universe, or with man, or with the relation between them, is at all affected by considering the relative amount of space they occupy: historically false, because the littleness of man in the world has always been a familiar theme of reflection. Boethius s <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>De <span class=SpellE>Consolatione</span> <span class=SpellE>Philosophiae</span></i>, which has been called the most widely read book of the Middle Ages, contains the following words:  Thou hast learnt from astronomical proofs that the whole earth compared with the universe is no greater than a point, that is, compared with the sphere of the heavens, it may be thought of as having no size at all. Then, of this tiny corner, it is only one-quarter that, according to Ptolemy, is habitable to living things. Take away from this quarter the seas, mashes, and other desert places, and the space left for man hardly even deserves the name of infinitesimal. (Book ii, <span class=SpellE>Prosa</span> vii.) Every educated European for a thousand years before Copernicus knew that passage, and Copernicus had no need to risk condemnation for heresy in order to repeat its substance.<br> <span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span>The true significance of his astronomical discoveries was far more important. It consisted not so much in displacing the world s centre from the earth to the sun as in implicitly denying that the world has a centre at all.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Boethius, King Alfred, Dante, and Chaucer</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'> &nbsp;Boethius,</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'> Roman statesman and philosopher (480-524). As a prisoner of the Gothic king <span class=SpellE>Theoderic</span> and awaiting a cruel execution he wrote <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Consolation of Philosophy</i> (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>De <span class=SpellE>consolatione</span> <span class=SpellE>philosophiae</span></i>), one of the most widely read books of the Middle Ages; see the Collingwood quote above.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'> &nbsp;King Alfred, or Alfred the Great (849-899), king of Wessex and overlord of England, translated Boethius into English and greatly encouraged writing and learning in English.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'> Dante Alighieri (1265-1321) , Italian poet, author of the <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Commedia</i> (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Divine Comedy</i>).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'> &nbsp;Geoffrey Chaucer (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>c</i>. 1340-1400), English poet, author of the <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Canterbury Tales</i> and translator of French and Italian works.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Mr. H. G. Wells or Professor Haldane<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'> Wells: see note to [5/7] <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Mr. H. G. Wells</i>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;layout-grid-mode:line'> Haldane: see note to [3/7] <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Professor Haldane</i></span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>. In 1946 Haldane published a critical <a href="http://www.lewisiana.nl/haldane"><span style='color:windowtext'>review of Lewis s  Space Trilogy </span></a>, after which Lewis wrote a  Reply that was not published until 1982. This reply is one of the other places where Lewis mentioned Ptolemy s view of the earth as a point with no magnitude (see note to [7/8] <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Ptolemy</i>).</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;layout-grid-mode:line'>[</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform: uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>7/10] when the doctor at a <span style='mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>post-mortem</span></span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Now the odd thing is that both alternatives are equally used</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'> <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>as objections</i></b><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Lewis is repeating almost verbatim portions from his essay  Dogma and the Universe , published in two parts in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Guardian</i> in March 1943. Half a year earlier he had contributed the essay  Miracles . The theme of the universe being either empty or full but always telling against Christianity briefly surfaced again when Lewis wrote about the Space Race of the late 1950s and early 1960s; see his essays  Religion and Rocketry (1958) and  The Seeing Eye (1963).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'> come down from heaven <o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>A phrase from the Nicene </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'>Creed (325-381 AD</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>), as translated in the Anglican <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Book of Common Prayer</i>.</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%; font-family:"Courier New";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm;mso-layout-grid-align:none'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>Who for us men, and for our salvation, came down from heaven, and was incarnate by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary, and was made man...</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>as the policeman in the story ... whatever he does  will be used in evidence against Him. </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>cf. James Stephens, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Crock of Gold</i> (1912), chapter 14. Lewis was referring to  the humour both of the philosopher and the policemen in this fantasy story as early as<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>February 1917 in a letter to Arthur Greeves (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Collected Letters </i>I, 280).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>7/16] we are inveterate poets<o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>the silence of the eternal spaces terrified Pascal</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>Blaise Pascal (1623-1662), French mathematician and philosopher. </span><span lang=FR style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:FR;mso-bidi-font-style: italic'>The <span class=SpellE>reference</span> <span class=SpellE>is</span> to <i>Penses</i>, Nr. 206 (Brunschvicg <span class=SpellE>edition</span>).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=FR style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:FR'>Le silence ternel de ces espaces infinis m effraie</span></i><span lang=FR style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:FR'>.<span style='layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=FR style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:FR;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>overcrow</span></i></b></span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'> our spirits</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Shakespeare, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Hamlet</i> V.2, 345.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;O, I die, Horatio!<br> The potent poison quite <span class=SpellE>o<span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:"Arial Narrow";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi'></span>er</span>-crows my spirit.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>In some later editions <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>overcrow</i></span> has become <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>overcrowd</i>. The parallel passage in Lewis s essay  Dogma and the Universe has <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>overcross</i></span>. The correct reading is found both in the first edition and early printings of the revised edition.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:18.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 15.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Chapter 8: <span style='mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Miracle and the Laws of Nature<o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-US; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;layout-grid-mode:line'>[CHAPTER MOTTO]</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;layout-grid-mode: line'>... whatever Miss T. eats / Turns into miss T.  <span style='text-transform: uppercase'>w. de la mare<o:p></o:p></span></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;layout-grid-mode:line'>Walter John de la Mare (1873-1956), English poet; his <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Complete Poems</i> were published in 1969. Lewis quotes the first four lines of a 14-line poem called  Miss T. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[8/5] if the laws of nature</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'> like a thief in the night <o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>2 Peter 3:10 (cf. 1 Thessalonians 5:2).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>But the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Peter and Paul were probably remembering or quoting Jesus s words as recorded in Matthew 24:42-43 and Luke 12:39.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[8/9] THE RIGHTFUL DEMAND<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>& that the total events, if we could grasp it & <o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>The plural, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>events</i>, introduced in the 1960 revised edition is certainly a <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='color:maroon'>typo</span></b>. The first edition has the correct singular form, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>event</i>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:18.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 15.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Chapter 9: <span style='mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>A Chapter not strictly Necessary</span></span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[9/2] one of the things</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>I wrote a poem in those days about a sunrise</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>The poem does not appear to have survived.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[9/5] to say that god</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Falstaff or Sam Weller</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Falstaff </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>is a character in Shakespeare s plays <i>The Merry Wives of Windsor</i><span style='mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>,<i> Henry IV</i></span> (1 &amp; 2), and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Henry V</i> . Sam Weller is a character in Charles Dickens s novel <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Pickwick Papers</i>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>the  <span class=SpellE>Correggiosity</span> of Correggio<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Correggio (1494-1534) was an Italian painter distinctive for the way he used perspective, foreshortening, contrasts of light and shadow, and softness of outlines.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>9/6] nature is by human</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Othello ... Perdita ... Lady Macbeth<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Like Falstaff [9/5], all these are characters in various plays by Shakespeare: Othello in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Othello</i>, Perdita in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>A Winter s Tale </i>(a comedy), Lady Macbeth<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> </i>in<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> Macbeth</i>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:18.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 15.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Chapter 10:  <span style='mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Horrid Red Things <o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[CHAPTER MOTTO]</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>edwyn bevan</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>, <span style='mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>Symbolism and Belief</span></span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span class=SpellE><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'>Edwyn</span></span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'> Robert Bevan 1870-1943, English scholar of ancient history and religion. <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Symbolism and Belief</i> originated as The Gifford Lectures for 1933-1934 and was first published in 1938.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span>Already in 1940 Lewis referred to Bevan s book in his first work of Christian apologetics, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>The Problem of Pain</i> (<span class=SpellE>ch.</span> 8), and recommended it to his former pupil Mary <span class=SpellE>Neylan</span> ( a good many misunderstandings are cleared away by [it]  <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Collected Letters</i> II, p. 375). In subsequent years, when Lewis mentioned the book he almost invariably did so in strongly recommending terms. Thus in a 1959 letter to Mary Van <span class=SpellE>Deusen</span>,  I think it helps more than any book I know to keep one right on all  modernism   <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>CL</i> III, 1012). In the last year of his life, when asked  what Christian writers have helped you? , his answer included <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Symbolism and Belief</i> ( Cross-examination , 1963).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>10/2] the difficulties of the unbeliever</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Jupiter or Odin<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Jupiter was the supreme god of ancient Roman mythology; Odin (<span class=SpellE>Woden</span>, Wotan) was the god of wisdom, poetry, agriculture, war and the dead in ancient Germanic religion.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'> Son ...  come down from Heaven <o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>See note to [7/10] <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> came down from heaven </i>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>10/3] It is this impression</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Thus, at any rate, I used to think myself</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Lewis s adolescent attitude to religion is expressed in his early letters to Arthur Greeves, now available in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Collected Letters</i> I, and previously published in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>They Stand Together: The Letters of C. S. Lewis to Arthur Greeves (1914-1963)</i>, ed. Walter Hooper (1979).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'>the Golden Bough</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion </span></i><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>(1890-1914), by Scottish anthropologist James George Frazer (1854-1941), is a wide-ranging comparative study of myths and rituals all over the world.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>the very man who taught me to think<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>William T. Kirkpatrick (1848-1921), Lewis s private teacher in 1914-1917, described in chapter 9 of Lewis s autobiography <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Suprised</i></span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> by Joy</i> (1955).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Rationalist Press Association</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>An organization set up in 1899 to ensure publication of literature which was too anti-religious to be welcome with regular publishers. The RPA renamed itself  Rationalist Association in 2002 and publishes the <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>New Humanist</i> magazine, which started as <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Wattss</i></span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'> Literary Guide</i> in 1885); see <a href="http://www.newhumanist.org.uk"><span style='color:windowtext'>www.newhumanist.org.uk</span></a>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>10/6] in order to explain</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Mr. Owen Barfield s <span style='mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>Poetic Diction</span><o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Arthur Owen Barfield (1898-1997), English philosopher, writer, critic and lawyer, was a friend of Lewis since their undergraduate days in Oxford. He began writing </span><i><span lang=EN style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN'>Poetic Diction: A&nbsp;Study In Meaning</span></i><span lang=EN style='font-size:14.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN'> in 1921 as a B.Litt. thesis and it was published in 1928, with a dedication to C. S. Lewis. See <a href="http://www.owenbarfield.org"><span style='color:windowtext'>www.owenbarfield.org</span></a>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Mr. <span class=SpellE>Edwyn</span> Bevan s <span style='mso-bidi-font-style: italic'>Symbolism and Belief<o:p></o:p></span></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line; mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>See note to this chapter s motto.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line; mso-bidi-font-style:italic'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>[</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>10/9] in these examples</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>you don t find horrid red things inside it<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Cf. Lewis s 1944 article for the <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Church of England Newspaper</i>,  <span class=SpellE>Horrid</span> Red <span class=SpellE>Things</span> (1944).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>10/13] let us now apply this<o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Christ  came down from Heaven </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Another reference to this phrase from the Nicene Creed; cf. note to chapters 7 and 10.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>10/15] as far, then, as the adult christian</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'> sat down at the right hand of the Father </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Another phrase from the Nicene Creed; see note above.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Alexandria</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>The capital of Egypt and a major centre of learning in Ptolemaic and Roman times. Lewis made exactly the same kind of reference to Alexandria in  Is Theology Poetry? , a 1944 paper for the Oxford Socratic Club. In that year he made the same point also in   Horrid Red Things  (see note to [10/7] <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>you don t find</i>).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>10/16] even if it could be shown<o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>The sect in the Egyptian desert</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'> ... <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>is condemned: the desert monk</i></b> ... <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> muddleheaded. ... Cassian quoted in Gibbon, <span class=SpellE>Senex</span> <span class=SpellE>mente</span> <span class=SpellE>confusus</span><o:p></o:p></i></b></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>The reference is to the six-volume </span><i><span lang=EN style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire</span></i><span lang=EN style='font-size:14.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold;mso-bidi-font-style: italic'> (1776-1789), chapter XLVII, footnote 13 at the end of the chapter s second section. The desert monk in question was called <span class=SpellE>Serapion</span>,  one of the saints of the <span class=SpellE>Nitrian</span> desert . Cassian is Johannes <span class=SpellE>Cassianus</span> (<i>c.</i> 360-<i>c</i>. 435), a founding father of early Christian monasticism, and Gibbon was quoting Cassian s <span class=SpellE><i>Collationes</i></span><i> <span class=SpellE>Patrum</span></i>, X.2, a collection of talks (probably fictitious) with Egyptian hermits.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>[</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>10/19] we are often told</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Mr. Barfield</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Another reference to Owen Barfield s <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Poetic Diction</i> (1928); see note to [10/6] <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Mr. Owen Barfield s</i>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>10/18] the christian doctrines<o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Christ ... when he told us to carry the cross<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Gospel of Matthew 10:38, 16:24, and parallel places in the Gospels of Mark and Luke.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:18.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 15.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>Chapter 11: C<span style='layout-grid-mode:line;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>hristianity and  Religion </span></span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 15.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line; mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[CHAPTER MOTTO]</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>thomas erskine of linlathen<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Scottish advocate and self-taught theologian (1788-1870). Lewis may be quoting from his </span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>Remarks on the Internal Evidence for the Truth of Revealed Religion</span></i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'> (1820)</span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'> </span></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;background: #EEECE1;mso-shading-themecolor:background2;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><a href="#welcome" target="_self"><span style='color:windowtext'>[...?]</span></a></span></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>11/3] in the first place it is usually</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>anthropomorphic attributes drop off one by one</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>A similar Lewisian thumbnail history, not of religion but of philosophy, can be found in a preface he wrote in 1952 for a book called <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>The Hierarchy of Heaven and Earth</i>, by D. E. Harding. Lewis s objection there is not that it is a  fanciful history, but that the process of  emptying the universe defeats itself. Recognizing that  the advance of knowledge gradually empties this rich and genial universe [as experienced by primitive humanity] first of its gods, then of its colours, smells, sounds and tastes, finally of solidity itself ... he points out that<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>the same method which has emptied the world now proceeds to empty ourselves. ... We, who have personified all other things, turn out to be ourselves mere personifications. Man is akin to the gods: that is, he is no less phantasmal than they.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>This preface was later reprinted as  The Empty Universe in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Present Concerns</i> (1986) and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Essay Collection</i> (2000).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>11/4] now this imagined history<o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>the <span class=SpellE><span style='mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>orenda</span></span> of a savage tribe</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Orenda</span></i></span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'> is an Iroquois word for a mysterious power in all sorts of natural objects. A&nbsp;similar concept is that of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>mana</i> in Polynesian and <span class=SpellE>Melanesion</span> religion.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>the Stoics</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>An ancient Greek school of philosophy, founded by Zeno around 300 B.C. and lasting for about 500 years. Its pantheistic teachings about a universal <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Logos</i> (Reason) and its presence in every individual thing or being as <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Logos <span class=SpellE>spermatikos</span></i> (Creative Reason) were largely a matter of its early centuries. Later Stoicism took a more strictly practical and ethical turn in Seneca, Epictetus and Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius. In the Bible the Stoics are mentioned, along with the Epicureans, as the kind of people in Athens who were happy to hear what the apostle Paul had to say and to have interesting discussions with him (Acts 17:18).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Bruno and Spinoza</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'> Giordano Bruno<span style='text-transform:uppercase'> </span>(1548-1600), Italian philosopher and Dominican friar who on the basis of the new cosmology of Copernicus developed a monistic an pantheistic philosophy. He was burnt at the stake for heresy in Rome.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;layout-grid-mode:line'> Baruch de Spinoza (1632-1677), Dutch philosopher who developed, much more consistently than Bruno, a monistic philosophy and proposed to use  Nature and  God as interchangeable terms denoting the totality of all that exists.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;layout-grid-mode:line'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span>A good brief discussion of Bruno and Spinoza, their pantheism and their relation to the science of their days, is found in Collingwood s <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Idea of Nature</i> (1945); cf. note to the motto of chapter 4, above. According to a massively researched recent view, Spinoza s monism was not so much a return to ancient tendencies as the one true origin of the Enlightenment and hence of the modern world (Jonathan Israel, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Radical Enlightenment</i>, 2001; <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Enlightenment Contested</i>, 2006; <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Democratic Enlightenment</i>, 2011).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-US;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></i></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;layout-grid-mode: line'>Hegel</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;layout-grid-mode:line'> ... </span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Wordsworth, Carlyle and Emerson</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;layout-grid-mode:line'> Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel<span style='text-transform:uppercase'> </span>(1770-1831), German philosopher.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;layout-grid-mode:line'> William Wordsworth<span style='text-transform:uppercase'> </span>(1770-1850), English poet.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;layout-grid-mode:line'> Thomas Carlyle<span style='text-transform:uppercase'> </span>(1795-1881), Scottish essayist and historian.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'> Ralph Waldo Emerson<span style='text-transform:uppercase'> </span>(1803-1882), U.S. poet and essayist.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Theosophy<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>The term may refer in general to any system of thought concerned with the relationship between God and creation and direct experience of the divine; Lewis probably refers to the teachings of the Theosophical Society, founded in 1875 in New York (but soon moving its headquarters to India).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>the worship of the life-force</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'> Worship in a loose and informal sense.  Life force was a term of which the original French form  <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>lan vital </i> got currency through the writings of French philosopher mile Bergson (1859-1941). In England it was popularized by the prolific writer and dramatist Bernard Shaw (1856-1950). Lewis may have been thinking also of the English novelist D. H. Lawrence (1885-1930), whose novels glorify the beauty of nature and instinct, especially the sexual impulse.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[11/4, <span style='text-transform: uppercase'>note</span>] <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>a Minister of Education<o:p></o:p></i></b></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Lewis may be referring to Ellen Wilkinson, Minister of Education in the Labour Government under Clement Attlee until her death on 6 February 1947.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>11/5] this native bent of the mind</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Men believed in atoms</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'> <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>centuries before...</i></b><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>The earliest forms of  atomism in philosophy were developed in the 5th century B.C. by the early Greek philosophers Leucippus and Democritus, and later by the Roman poet Lucretius (98-55 B.C.) in his didactic poem <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>De <span class=SpellE>rerum</span> <span class=SpellE>natura</span></i>,<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> </i>Book I and II.<i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'><o:p></o:p></i></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Schrdinger ... Democritus</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-US;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Democritus is the ancient Greek philosopher mentioned in the note above. </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;layout-grid-mode:line'>Erwin Schrdinger<span style='text-transform:uppercase'> </span>(1887-1961) was an Austrian physicist and<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Nobel laureate in 1933. Lewis is slightly more explicit in his 1942 essay  Miracles about one issue which he thought Schrdinger  knew too much about:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;layout-grid-mode:line'>To explain even an atom Schrdinger wants seven dimensions ...<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;layout-grid-mode:line'>Lewis may have been remembering here a passage in a popular book on modern physics which he certainly knew, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>The Mysterious Universe</i> (1931, 2nd ed. 1931) by Sir James Jeans (p. 106-107 in the post-1933 Cambridge reprint with corrections): <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;layout-grid-mode: line'>... a single electron isolated in space provides a perfectly eventless universe, the simplest conceivable event occurring when two electrons meet one another. And to describe, in its simplest terms, what happens when two electrons meet one another, the wave-mechanics asks for a system of waves in an ether which has seven dimensions; six are of space, and one is of time. ... Most physicists would, I think, agree that the seven-dimensional space in which the wave-mechanics pictures the meeting of two electrons in purely fictitious, in which case the waves which accompany the electrons must also be regarded as fictitious. Thus Professor Schrdinger, writing of the seven-dimensional space, says that although it<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:121.9pt;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;layout-grid-mode:line'>has quite a definite physical meaning, it cannot very well be said to  exist ; hence a wave-motion in this space cannot be said to  exist <span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>in the ordinary sense of the word either. It is merely an adequate mathematical description of what happens. It may be that also in the case of one single [electron], the wave-motion must not be taken to  exist in </span></i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;layout-grid-mode:line'>too<i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'> literal a sense, although the configuration-space happens to coincide with ordinary space in this particular simple case</i>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;layout-grid-mode:line'>While this quote from Schrdinger (without source reference) in itself hardly confirms Lewis s idea that the physicist  knows too much, it is Jeans who adds,<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;layout-grid-mode:line'>Yet it is hard to see how we can attribute a lower degree of reality to the one set of waves than to the other: it is absurd to say that the waves of single electrons are real, while those of pairs of electrons are fictitious. And the waves of single electrons are real enough to record themselves on a photographic plate ...<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>St. Athanasius ... he also knows too much<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Athanasius of Alexandria (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>c</i>. 295-373), Church Father, defender of orthodoxy as defined in the Nicene Creed against the Arian heresy. His <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>De <span class=SpellE>incarnatione</span> <span class=SpellE>Verbi</span></i> is an exposition of the doctrine that Jesus Christ was true God and true Man; his <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Orationes</i></span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> contra <span class=SpellE>gentes</span></i> are a further exposition of the divinity of Christ. The claim that Athanasius  knew more than Shaw, while good as a piece of impish rhetoric, is better developed in  Dogma and the Universe (1943), one of Lewis s essays that led up to <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Miracles</i>:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Wherever there is real progress in knowledge, there is some knowledge that is not superseded. ... New bottles for new wine, by all means: but not new palates, throats and stomachs, or it would not be, for us,  wine at all.... [T]he positive historical statements made by Christianity have the power, elsewhere found chiefly in formal principles, of receiving, without intrinsic change, the increasing complexity of meaning which increasing knowledge puts into them.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>See also chapter 14, below,<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>penultimate paragraph:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>The whole Miracle [i.e. the Incarnation], far from denying what we already know of reality, writes the comment which makes that crabbed text plain: or rather, proves itself to be the text on which Nature was only the commentary.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Mr. Bernard Shaw</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>See note to [11/3] <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>the worship of the life-force.</i> The  Mr. is noteworthy as a sign that Shaw, born in 1856, was still alive when <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Miracles</i> was published in 1947. The continued liveliness of his mind was shown in that same year when Arthur C. Clarke sent him a new paper on  The Challenge of the Spaceship : Shaw responded by joining the British Interplanetary Society for the remaining three years of his life (cf. Clarke, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Challenge of the Spaceship</i> (1958), 1980 Pocket Book edition, p. 13, note).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>11/7] at every point christianity</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'> cold Christs and tangled Trinities </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>From a short poem by Rudyard Kipling in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Plain Tales from the Hills</i> (1888), serving as the first tale s motto:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Look, you have cast out Love! What Gods are these<br> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;You bid me please?<br> The Three in One, the One in Three? Not so!<br> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;To my </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'>own Gods I go.<br> It may be they shall give me greater ease<br> Than your cold Christ and tangles Trinities.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[11/10] PROBABLY NO THINKING PERSON<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Professor Whitehead ... paying God ill-judged  metaphysical compliments <o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Alfred North Whitehead, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Science and the Modern World</i> (1925), last paragraph of chapter 12,  God :<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Among medieval and modern philosophers, anxious to establish the religious significance of God, an unfortunate habit has prevailed of paying to Him metaphysical compliments.</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:Fd494912-Identity-H;mso-bidi-font-family:Fd494912-Identity-H; mso-ansi-language:EN-US'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>11/11] the error which i am<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>if we fully understood </span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>what<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> God is we should see that there is no question </i><span style='mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>whether<i> He</i></span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> is<o:p></o:p></i></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Lewis is here pretty close to the  ontological argument for the existence of God, formulated by Anselm of Canterbury (1033-1109) in his <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Proslogion</i></span>, cap. 2. Defining God as  </span><span lang=EN style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN'>that than which nothing greater can be conceived </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'> (<span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>aliquid</i></span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>, quo nihil <span class=SpellE>maius</span> <span class=SpellE>cogitari</span> <span class=SpellE>possit</span></i>), Anselm argued that non-existence would surely make God smaller than that, so that He must exist.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span>Cf. also Lewis s chapter 4, above, last paragraph:  In fact one seldom meets people who have grasped the existence of a supernatural God and yet deny that He is the Creator. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[11/14] our own situation is</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>In St. Paul s language</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>2 Corinthians 5:2-4 (NIV).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>... we groan, longing to be clothed with our heavenly dwelling ... we do not wish to be unclothed but to be clothed with our heavenly dwelling, so that what is mortal may be swallowed up by life.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>only He who does the will of the Father will ever know the true doctrine</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>John 7:17.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>If any man will do his will, he shall know of the doctrine, whether it be of God, or whether I speak of myself.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'> Oh, taste and see! </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Psalm 34:8.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>O taste and see that the <span style='text-transform:uppercase'>Lord</span> is good.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[11/15]  a spirit and a vision <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'> A Spirit and a Vision, said Blake</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>...<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>William Blake (1757-1827), English poet and painter. He wrote <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>A Descriptive Catalogue of Pictures, Poetical and Historical Inventions</i> (1809) as a guide to an exhibition of his own engravings, notably a series of illustrations for Chaucer s <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Canterbury Tales</i>. Blake was often scathingly critical of contemporary conventions, values, tastes and theories. The idea expressed here is one which Lewis seems to have used for his own theological fantasy <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>The Great Divorce</i> (1946), although he acknowledged the idea for that book to a <span class=SpellE>sciencefiction</span> writer whose name he had forgotten.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>11/16] and here the subject of imagery</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Old Testament picture of <span class=SpellE>Jahweh</span> thundering and lightning<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>For example, in Exodus 19:16, the episode leading up to the promulgation of the Ten Commandments. <span class=SpellE>Jahweh</span> (or JHWH) is one of the names of God in the Hebrew Bible.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>making mountains skip like rams<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Psalm 114:4-6.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Spirit ... must be pictured ... as something <span style='mso-bidi-font-style: italic'>heavier</span> than matter.<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>This is what Lewis did in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Great Divorce</i> (see note to [11/15] <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> A Spirit and a Vision </i>).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>11/18] again, we may find</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>the  still, small voice </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>1 Kings 19:12.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>And after the earthquake a fire: but the <span style='text-transform:uppercase'>Lord</span> was not in the fire; and after the fire a still small voice.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>The NIV has  ... a gentle whisper .<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:18.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 15.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Chapter 12: <span style='mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>The Propriety of Miracles</span></span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[CHAPTER MOTTO]</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>seeley</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>, <span style='mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>Ecce Homo</span><o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>John Robert Seeley (1834-1895), English historian and essayist. <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Ecce Homo</i>, published anonymously in 1865, was a widely read and much discussed Life of Christ.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></i></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>12/3] now one often finds</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>over-punctilious and pedantic ... The classical critics were shocked at the  irregularity or  licenses of Shakespeare</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>A  regular playwright in the 17th century, especially in France, was thought to be one who observed the rule of the  Three Unities : unity of Action, of Place, and of Time. William Shakespeare (1564-1616) did not usually follow this rule at all. While Lewis may have been thinking of French Shakespeare criticism, it is hardly true to say that English critics, classical or otherwise, were ever actually  shocked by Shakespeare s supposed failure. Major critics such as John Dryden (1631-1700) and Samuel Johnson (1709-1784) when noting Shakespeare s  licences at all as licenses, made sure to point out that he would certainly not have been a better writer if he had cared to be more  regular .<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>The Winter s Tale</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>A late play by Shakespeare, the last-but-one of his comedies.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>12/4] in other words, there are</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'> work which God <span class=SpellE>worketh</span> from the beginning to the end <o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Ecclesiastes 3:11.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>He hath made every thing beautiful in his time: also he hath set the world in their heart, so that no man can find out the work that God <span class=SpellE>maketh</span> from beginning to the end.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Modern translation are quite different.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>12/5] for who can suppose</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>the best illustration of all is Bergson s</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Henri Bergson (1859-1941); see note to [11/4] <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>the worship of the life-force</i>. Lewis is referring to Bergson s most famous work, <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>volution</i></span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> <span class=SpellE>cratrice</span></i> (1907, translated in 1911 as <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Creative Evolution</i>), chapter I, final section  <span class=SpellE>L <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>lan</i></span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'> vital</i> ( The <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>vital impetus</i> ), sixth paragraph:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width=1021 style='width:18.0cm;margin-left:96.4pt;border-collapse:collapse;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'> <td width=461 valign=top style='width:230.25pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:0cm;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm;text-autospace: none'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=FR style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:FR;layout-grid-mode:line'>Un artiste de gnie a peint une figure sur la toile. Nous pourrons imiter son tableau avec des carreaux de mosaque multicolores. Et nous reproduirons d autant mieux les courbes et les nuances du modle que nos carreaux seront plus petits, plus nombreux, plus varis de ton. Mais il faudrait une infinit d lments infiniment petits, prsentant une infinit de nuances, pour obtenir l exact quivalent de cette figure que l artiste conue comme une chose simple, qu il a voulu transporter en bloc sur la toile, et qui est d autant plus acheve qu elle apparat mieux comme la projection d une intuition indivisible. <o:p></o:p></span></i></p> </td> <td width=461 valign=top style='width:230.3pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:0cm;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm;text-autospace: none'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:13.0pt; font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>An artist of genius has painted a figure on his canvas. We can imitate his picture with many-colored squares of mosaic. And we shall reproduce the curves and shades of the model so much the better as our squares are smaller, more numerous and more varied in tone. But an infinity of elements infinitely small, presenting an infinity of shades, would be necessary to obtain the exact equivalent of the figure that the artist has conceived as a simple thing, which he has wished to transport as a whole to the canvas, and which is the more complete the more it strikes us as the projection of an indivisible intuition.<span style='layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </table> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Bergson briefly returned to his example in the book s final section,  The Evolutionism of Spencer :<o:p></o:p></span></p> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width=1021 style='width:18.0cm;margin-left:96.4pt;border-collapse:collapse;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'> <td width=461 valign=top style='width:230.25pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:0cm;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm;text-autospace: none'><span lang=FR style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:FR;layout-grid-mode: line'>... <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>l acte de dessiner et de peindre n a aucun rapport avec celui d assembler les fragments d une image dj dessine, dj peinte.</i><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td width=461 valign=top style='width:230.3pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:0cm;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm;text-autospace: none'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>...the act of drawing and painting has nothing to do with that of putting together the fragments of a picture already drawn and already painted.</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:13.0pt;font-family: "Arial Narrow","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> </table> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>12/6] how a miracle can be</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Dorothy Sayers ... <span style='mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>The Mind of the Maker<o:p></o:p></span></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><i><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>The Mind of the Maker</span></i><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line; mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>, by Dorothy L. Sayers (1893-1957), appeared in 1941. Lewis is referring to chapter 5,  Free Will and Miracle , last paragraph:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>The agents of the miraculous which the novelist has at his command are, roughly speaking, conversion and coincidence; either a character or a situation is abruptly changed, not by anything developing out of the essentials of the story, but by the personal divine intervention of the creator. Yet it will not altogether do to say that neither conversion nor coincidence is <i>ever</i> permissible in a story. ... [T]he will of the creator becomes a character in the story; just as, theologically, all miracles depend on the assumption that God is a character in history. But even so, it is necessary that God should act in conformity with His own character. The study of our analogy will lead us perhaps to believe that God will be chary of indulging in irrelevant miracle, and will use it only when it is an integral part of the story.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line; mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>Lewis s debt to Sayers in writing <i>Miracles</i> was perhaps larger than appears from this one reference. In a letter to Lewis of 13 May 1943 she complained that  there aren t any up-to-date books about Miracles , and on 17 May he replied telling her  I m starting a book on Miracles. Walter Hooper thinks it likely that Sayers provided  exactly the encouragement Lewis needed to write his own book on the subject (<i>Collected Letters</i> II, p. 573).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[12/7] THE READER MAY<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>A friend of mine wrote a play<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>One instance of a similar story being told to Lewis is recounted in his diary for 29 May 1922, as published in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>All My Road Before Me</i> (1992), p. 42.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:18.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 15.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Chapter 13: <span style='mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>On Probability<o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[CHAPTER MOTTO]</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>hume</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>, <span style='mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>Treatise of Human Nature,</span> I, III, vi.<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>David Hume (1711-1776), Scottish philosopher and historian, and a major proponent of atheism. <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>A</i> <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Treatise of Human Nature</i> (1739-1740) was his first published work.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>13/6] ever since hume s famous e<span style='mso-bidi-font-style: italic'>ssay</span></span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Hume s famous Essay</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>i.e. Hume s essay <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Of Miracles</i>, first published in 1758 as section X of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>An Enquiry concerning Human Understanding</i>. This book was an enlarged edition of the one published in 1748 as <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Philosophical Essays concerning Human Understanding</i>. The section <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Of Miracles</i> has often been reprinted as a separate publication, e.g. as the 60-page Open Court Classics edition (1985) introduced and annotated by Antony Flew.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span>The two phrases quoted from Hume,  firm and unalterable experience and  uniform experience , appear toward the end of the essay s first part, or the <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Enquiry</i> s sub-sections 89 and 90.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>13/14] but i am convinced<o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'> In science, said the late Sir Arthur Eddington </span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>... <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>the fitness of things</i></span></b><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></i></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Sir Arthur Stanley </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Eddington (1882-1944), British astronomer and popular writer on science. The quotation, with a small ellipsis, is from the <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The</i></span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> Nature of the Physical World</i> (1928, Gifford Lectures 1927), last chapter (XV),  Science and Mysticism , near the end of the section called  Conviction :<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-CA style='font-size: 14.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-CA; mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>In science we sometimes have convictions as to the right solution of a problem which we cherish... [etc.]</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[13/17] the sciences logically require</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Professor Whitehead points out ... Science and the Modern World<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>The footnote is wrong: Lewis is in fact referring to chapter I of Whitehead s book, not chapter II. The epithet  our greatest natural philosopher may partly go back to Collingwood s <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Idea of Nature</i> (see first note to chapter 4, above). On page 79 of that book, Collingwood notes that Whitehead s judgement of Plato s <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Timaeus</i></span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>deserves the utmost respect as that of one of the greatest living philosophers and perhaps the greatest living writer on cosmology. In Whitehead s opinion the <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Timaeus</i></span> comes nearer than any other book to providing the philosophical setting required by the ideas of modern physical science.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[13/20] if in giving such weight</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Mother <span class=SpellE>Egare</span> Louise</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>The name seems to be an invention of Lewis; <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>garer</i></span> is French for  getting lost ,  going astray ; St Anthony is a saint traditionally invoked as Patron Saint of lost things and people.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>the  rosy <span class=SpellE>pudency</span> </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Shakespeare, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Cymbeline</i> II.5, 11. <span class=SpellE>Posthumus</span> talking about his wife:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Me of my lawful pleasure she <span class=SpellE>restrain d</span><br> And <span class=SpellE>pray d</span> me oft forbearance; did it with<br> A <span class=SpellE>pudency</span> so rosy, the sweet view <span class=SpellE>on t</span><br> Might well have <span class=SpellE>warm d</span> old Saturn; that I thought her<br> As chaste as <span class=SpellE>unsunn d</span> snow.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:18.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>Chapter 14: <span style='layout-grid-mode:line'>The Grand Miracle<o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[CHAPTER MOTTO]</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>A light that shone from behind the sun ... <span style='text-transform:uppercase'>charles williams<o:p></o:p></span></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>Lines 307-308 from  The Calling of Taliessin , the second section in <i>The Region of the Summer Stars</i> (1944), an Arthurian long poem by Charles Williams. An intimate friend of Lewis, Williams died around the time when Lewis finished writing <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Miracles</i>. The first line is also quoted in Lewis s last book, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Letters to Malcolm</i> (1963), as the last words of chapter 5.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span>In <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Four Loves</i> (1960), chapter 6, par. 21, Lewis cites another phrase from <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Region of the Summer Stars</i>:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span> the land of the Trinity , which he considered to be closely related to the image of  light from behind the sun (cf. Williams &amp; Lewis, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Arthurian Torso</i> [1948], p. 103).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>[</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>14/2] the fitness or credibility</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>we are asked to regard all the theological elements as later accretions</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Lewis developed this particular objection to mid-20th-century modern theology notably in his 1959 essay  Modern Theology and Biblical Criticism , later published as  Fern-seed and Elephants in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Christian Reflections</i>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>the whole thing began with vegetation myths and mystery religions</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Vegetation myths are stories about gods who somehow undergo death and rebirth, like Osiris in ancient Egyptian religion. Mystery religions were popular in the Roman empire during the early Christian centuries, purporting to initiate believers into secrets and rituals that remain closed to other people. Lewis is referring to the  evolutionary thought pattern current around the turn of the 20th century, envisaging all things as complex and civilized products of simple and primitive beginnings. For the study of religion this was exemplified by Frazer s <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Golden Bough</i> (see note to [10/3] <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>the Golden Bough</i>). Lewis s critique of this approach is further developed later on in the present chapter and in his papers  Is Theology Poetry? and  The Funeral of a Great Myth , both written while he was working on <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Miracles</i>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>14/3] since the incarnation<o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>We believe that the sun is in the sky at midday [etc.]<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>cf. the last sentence of  Is Theology Poetry? (see previous note):<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>I believe in Christianity as I believe that the Sun has risen not only because I see it but because by it I see everything else.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[14/4] the first difficulty that</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>understanding that there must be a still unobserved planet beyond Uranus<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>This planet beyond Uranus is Neptune, discovered almost simultaneously by two astronomers, John Adams in England and Le <span class=SpellE>Verrier</span> in France, in the summer of 1845. Uranus had been discovered by Sir William Herschel in 1781 as the first planet beyond the five (barring Earth) known to humanity since time immemorial. Curiously, the two discoverers of Neptune each had an incorrect idea of the distant planet s course around the sun and nevertheless had a correct idea of its position at the moment of their telescopic <span class=SpellE>searchings</span>. Pluto, no longer counted as a planet today, was not discovered until 1930.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>in a very minor key</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Lewis s understanding of musical theory appears to be imperfect. It is not possible for a minor or major key to be  very minor or major. The key of any passage or movement is simply either major or minor.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Montaigne became kittenish with his kitten but she never talked philosophy to him<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592), French writer, originator of the  essay as a literary genre. The first full collection of his <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Essais</i></span> was published in 1588.<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> </i>The <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Apologie</i></span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'> de <span class=SpellE>Raimond</span> <span class=SpellE>Sebond</span></i> (Book II, <span class=SpellE>nr</span>. 12) is the longest essay of all (almost 80,000 words in </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>English translation). </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Purportedly a </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'>defence of a 14th-century Spanish work of natural theology and, more generally, of traditional Christianity and the established Church, the  Apology is in effect a major early-modern manifesto of philosophical scepticism.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span></span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US; layout-grid-mode:line'>Lewis is interpreting and critiquing Montaigne s observation rather than just citing it. </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>In the passage referred to (at about 9 percent of the total length from the essay s beginning) Montaigne is inquiring  </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>upon what foundation [man] hath built those great advantages and <span class=SpellE>ods</span> he <span class=SpellE>supposeth</span> to have over other creatures , arguing that this foundation is very weak indeed</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>:<span style='color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:96.4pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Presumption is our <span class=SpellE>naturall</span> and <span class=SpellE>originall</span> <span class=SpellE>infirmitie</span>. <i>Of all creatures man is the most miserable and <span class=SpellE>fraile</span>, and <span class=SpellE>therewithall</span> the proudest and <span class=SpellE>disdainfullest</span>.</i> ...<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>It is through the <span class=SpellE>vanitie</span> of the same imagination that he dare <span class=SpellE>equall</span> himself to God, that he <span class=SpellE>ascribeth</span> divine conditions unto himself, that he <span class=SpellE>selecteth</span> and <span class=SpellE>separateth</span> <span class=SpellE>himselfe</span> from out the <span class=SpellE>ranke</span> of other creatures ... How <span class=SpellE>knoweth</span> he by the <span class=SpellE>vertue</span> of his understanding the inward and secret motions of beasts? By what comparison from them to us doth he conclude the <span class=SpellE>brutishnesse</span> he <span class=SpellE>ascribeth</span> unto them? When I am playing with my cat, who <span class=SpellE>knowes</span> whether she have more sport in dallying with me than I have in gaming with her? <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=right style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt; margin-bottom:4.0pt;margin-left:99.25pt;text-align:right;line-height:130%; mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt; line-height:130%;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>  <a href="http://pages.uoregon.edu/rbear/montaigne/2xii.htm"><span style='color:windowtext;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>John Florio s translation</span></a> (1603)<span style='color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;layout-grid-mode:line'>The original French of the last sentence is<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=FR style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:FR;layout-grid-mode:line'>Quand je me <span class=SpellE>jou</span> ma chatte, qui <span class=SpellE>sait</span> si elle passe son temps de <span class=SpellE>moy</span> plus que je ne <span class=SpellE>fay</span> d elle?<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:68.05pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;layout-grid-mode:line'>A little further on Montaigne notes, <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US; mso-fareast-language:NL'>The defect which <span class=SpellE>hindreth</span> the communication <span class=SpellE>betweene</span> them and us, why may it not as well be in us as in them? It is a matter of divination to <span class=SpellE>guesse</span> in whom the fault is that we understand not one another. For we understand them no more than they us. By the same reason, may they as well <span class=SpellE>esteeme</span> us beasts as we them. </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:68.05pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Again, after dozens of pages with observations on animal behaviour, he concludes that <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US; mso-fareast-language:NL'>it <span class=SpellE>appeareth</span> that it is not long of [=due to] a true discourse, but of a foolish <span class=SpellE>hardinesse</span> and <span class=SpellE>selfe</span>-perfuming <span class=SpellE>obstinacie</span>, we prefer ourselves before other creatures, and sequester our selves from their condition and <span class=SpellE>societie</span>.</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;font-family: "Arial Narrow","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:68.05pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Lewis s point is precisely opposed to Montaigne s: the distinction between  higher and  lower powers (as exemplified by man and beast respectively) is what Lewis affirms against Montaigne s denial. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:68.05pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>14/7] the doctrine of the incarnation<o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Adonis, Osiris, or another<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Adonis was a deity in ancient Greek mythology; as the handsome lover both of Aphrodite and of Persephone, he was ordered by Zeus to live with the former on earth during the spring and summer, and with the latter in the underworld during the other two seasons. From early times the Adonis myth was felt to symbolize the death and rebirth of nature. Osiris, a major god in ancient Egyptian religion, was the god of the dead, the underworld, and resurrection.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>14/10] the records, in fact</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Sir Launcelot<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Launcelot or Lancelot du lac ( of the Lake ) is one of the Knights of the Round Table in Arthurian legends. He is always represented as the model of chivalry, bravery and fidelity although he was the lover of Guinevere, King Arthur s wife.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>14/11] there is, however</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>glad Creator</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Elsewhere Lewis used the same phrase, in quotation marks, on two occasions with reference to the poet Edmund Spenser (1552-1599) and perhaps quoting from him (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Spenser s Images of Life</i> [1967], last paragraph;  Neoplatonism in the Poetry of Spenser [1961], in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Studies in Medieval and Renaissance Literature</i> [1966], p. 162). The phrase is also quoted by George Macdonald in a passage quoted in turn by Lewis in his <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Macdonald Anthology</i> (1946), <span class=SpellE>nr</span>. 215. The precise origin remains uncertain.  <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='background:#EEECE1;mso-shading-themecolor:background2'><a href="#welcome" target="_self"><span style='color:windowtext'>[...?]</span></a></span><o:p></o:p></b></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Bacchus, Venus, Ceres</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Ancient Roman god and goddesses of Wine, Love and Corn ( cereals ) respectively.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>14/14] now if there is such a God</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>The Hebrews ... headed off from the </span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>worship</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'> of Nature-gods<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>e.g. when Moses destroyed the golden calf which the people had asked Aaron to make for them to worship, as recounted in Exodus 32. God tells Moses on Mount Sinai that the people<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>have turned aside quickly out of the way which I commanded them: they have made them a molten calf, and have worshipped it ... Now let me alone, that my wrath may wax hot against them, and that I may consume them: and I will make of thee a great nation.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Moses succeeds in assuaging God s anger but when he goes down and sees the calf and the people dancing and singing before it, his own anger  waxes hot <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>And he took the calf which they had made, and burnt it in the fire, and ground it to powder, and <span class=SpellE>strawed</span> it upon the water, and made the children of Israel drink of it.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[14/15] The mention of that nation</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>one man from the whole earth (Abraham) is picked out<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>cf. Genesis 12:1-3.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>some die in the desert, some remain behind in Babylon<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>The ancient Hebrews having left Egypt after more than four centuries (Exodus 12:31-42), they struggled to survive forty years of life in the desert before they reached the Promised Land. Babylonia is where the Hebrews lived in captivity for several decades in the mid-6th century BC. When the new Persian king Cyrus allowed them to go home in 537 BC, part of the people preferred to stay there.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>a Jewish girl at her prayers</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>i.e. Mary at the moment of the Annunciation; cf. Luke 1:28.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>14/17] at this point we come</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>the argument of Butler s famous Analogy<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>i.e. <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Analogy of Religion, Natural and Revealed, to the Constitution and Course of Nature</i> (1736) by the Anglican theologian and bishop Joseph Butler (1692-1752). Butler argues that the problems posed by  natural religion are as hard to solve as those posed by  revealed religion, but hardly succeeds in making a positive case for revealed religion.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>14/18] for when we look<o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Abraham is told that  in his seed [etc.]<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Genesis 22:18.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>And in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed; because thou hast obeyed my voice.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'> man of sorrows </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Isaiah 53:3.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>He is despised and rejected of men; a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief; and we hid as it were our faces from him; he was despised, and we esteemed him not.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[14/20] at this point it may</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>the worship of Dionysus</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>The ancient Greek god of wine, known to the Romans as Bacchus.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Life-force worship</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>See note to [11/4] <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>the worship of the life-force</i>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'> development <o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'> Development and its cognate words in other languages (e.g. German <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Entwicklung</i></span>, Dutch <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>ontwikkeling</i></span>) were sometimes used as a synonym for  evolution in the 19th and early 20th centuries.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'> Heroes,  Supermen <o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Lewis is probably alluding to Thomas Carlyle s <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Heroes and Hero Worship</i> (1841) and to Friedrich Nietzsche s concept of the <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>bermensch</i></span> ( Superman ) presented in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Also <span class=SpellE>sprach</span> Zarathustra</i> (1883; <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Thus <span class=SpellE>Spake</span> Zarathustra</i>). The term  Superman was introduced in the English language by G. B. Shaw in his play <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Man and Superman</i> (1903) along with the idea of a Life-force.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'> the same all the way up </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>A variant of the phrase in humorous accounts of primitive views of the universe, in which a flat Earth is thought to be resting on a huge elephant, or turtle. When asked what the elephant or turtle is standing on, the holder of this view is said to answer,  It s elephants/turtles all the way down! Cf. <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turtles_all_the_way_down#cite_ref-0"><span style='color:windowtext'>Wikipedia</span></a> on  Turtles all the way down .<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Nature is being lit up by a light from beyond Nature<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>cf. the Charles Williams quotation serving as this chapter s epitaph, above. Lewis expressed a similar idea as a matter of personal experience in his autobiography, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Surprised by Joy</i> (1955), chapter 11, describing his first reading of George Macdonald, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Phantastes</i>:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Up till now each visitation of Joy had left the common world momentarily a desert ... But now I saw the bright shadow coming out of the book into the real world and resting there, transforming all common things and yet itself unchanged.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[14/21] throughout this doctrine<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'> the whole creation is in travail</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Paul s epistle to the Romans 8:22.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>For we know that the whole creation <span class=SpellE>groaneth</span> and <span class=SpellE>travaileth</span> in pain together until now</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[14/22] in the first place<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'> without form and void </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Genesis 1:2.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>the widespread Naturalism ... as this error is corrected</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Cf. Lewis s chapters 2 through 5, above.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Maginot Line</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>A line of fortifications built by France in the 1930s to defend its border with Germany, called after the French minister of war at the time when the construction work began, Andr Maginot. The image is either unhappily or impishly chosen since the Maginot Line proved ineffective when Germany invaded France in 1940.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>14/24] another question that arises</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Jack the Giant-Killer<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line; mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>An English fairy-tale about a Cornish farmer s son slaying several giants, set in the days of King Arthur. The first printed version appeared in the early 18th century. Jack is a strong lad, but it is usually by his cleverness that he scores his successes against the giants.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line; mso-bidi-font-style:italic'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>those who have never fallen will thus bless Adam s fall<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Lewis is alluding to a passage in the <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Exsultet</i></span>, an ancient Easter hymn from the Roman Catholic liturgy:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><i><span lang=IT style='font-size: 14.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:IT'>O certe necessarium Adae peccatum, quod Christi morte deletum est!<br> </span></i><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>O <span class=SpellE>felix</span> culpa, quae <span class=SpellE>talem</span> ac <span class=SpellE>tantum</span> <span class=SpellE>meruit</span> <span class=SpellE>habere</span> <span class=SpellE>Redemptorem</span>!<o:p></o:p></span></i></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 14.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-US; mso-bidi-font-style:italic'> </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt; font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-US'> O truly necessary sin of Adam, which the death of Christ has blotted out!<br> O happy fault, that merited such and so great a Redeemer!<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>[</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>14/26] </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>this doctrine of a universal<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>When spring comes it  leaves no corner of the land untouched <o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>William Wordsworth (1770-1850), <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Prelude</i>, Book VI, 359:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>Among sequestered villages we walked<br> And found benevolence and blessedness<br> Spread like a fragrance everywhere, when spring<br> Hath left no corner of the land untouched ...</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'> Which of them was the greatest? <o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Luke 9:46.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Then there arose a reasoning among them, which of them should be greatest.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Nothing is  merely a by-product of anything else<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>The most memorable expression Lewis gave to this idea is in the long prose hymn at the end of his novel <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Perelandra</i>, where the universe is celebrated as a  Great Dance :<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span> Each grain is at the centre. The Dust is at the centre. The Worlds are at the centre. The beasts are at the centre. The ancient peoples are there. The race that sinned is there. ... The gods are there also. Blessed be He! <br> <span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span> Each thing ... is the end and the final cause of all creation and the mirror in which the beam of His brightness comes to rest and so returns to Him. Blessed be He! <br> <span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span> In the plan of the Great Dance plans without number interlock, and each movement becomes in its season the breaking into flower of the whole design to which all else had been directed. Thus each is equally at the centre and none are there by being equals, but some by giving place and some by receiving it, the small things by their smallness and the great by their greatness, and all the patterns linked and looped together by the unions of a kneeling with a <span class=SpellE>sceptred</span> love. Blessed be He! <br> <span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span> All that is made seems <span class=SpellE>planless</span> to the darkened mind, because there are more plans than it looked for. ... Set your eyes on one movement and it will lead you through all patterns and it will seem to you the master movement. But the seeming will be true. Let no mouth open to gainsay it. There seems no plan because it is all plan: there seems no centre because it is all centre. Blessed be He! <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>the inter-<span class=SpellE>inanimations</span> of reality</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'> Inter-<span class=SpellE>inanimation</span> is  mutual inspiration . The verb form of the word was apparently coined by the English poet John Donne (1572 1631) in his poem  The Ecstasy (or  <span class=SpellE>Exstasie</span> ), 41 44.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>When love with one another so<br> <span class=SpellE>interinanimates</span> two <span class=SpellE>soules</span>,<br> That abler <span class=SpellE>soule</span>, which thence doth flow,<br> Defects of <span class=SpellE>lonelinesse</span> <span class=SpellE>controules</span>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>As noted in Helen Gardner s 1965 edition of Donne s poems, the great majority of old manuscript sources for this poem have  <span class=SpellE>inter<i>in</i>animates</span> , not  <span class=SpellE>interanimates</span> . Yet the latter variety is the one found in the first edition (1633). This may well be why the <i>Oxford English Dictionary</i> only has an entry for  <span class=SpellE>interanimate</span> , quoting this line of Donne s as its only source and dubbing the word  rare . C. S. Lewis may have been an uncommonly frequent user of the word. He used it in at least five of his books , always choosing the -<i>in</i>- variety except in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Letters to <span style='mso-bidi-font-style: italic'>Malcolm</span></i><span style='mso-bidi-font-style:italic'> </span>(<span class=SpellE>ch.</span> 14, par. 26). The other places are <i>The Problem of Pain</i> (<span class=SpellE>ch.</span> 5, penultimate paragraph); <i>Perelandra</i> (<span class=SpellE>ch.</span> 17, the long paragraph after the  Great Dance text, describing the visual experience); and <i>Studies in Words </i>( Simple IV, par. 1, and  At the fringe of language par. 2).</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>14/28] it ought to be noticed</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>the lofty view ... among the Stoics, that Death  doesn t matter <o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:15.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>See note to [11/4] <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>the Stoics</i>. Ancient philosophical expressions of  apathy towards death were not exclusively Stoic  nor, perhaps, invariably lofty. One famous expression came from Epicurus (341 270 <span style='text-transform:uppercase'>b.c</span>.), founder of the Epicurean school, who considered physical pleasure as the ultimate goal of life:  Where death is, I am not, and where I am, death is not (Letter to <span class=SpellE>Menoeceus</span>).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:15.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'> kind nature s signal for retreat </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Samuel Johnson, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Vanity of Human Wishes</i> (1749), final passage.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Yet when the sense of sacred presence fires, <br> And strong devotion to the skies aspires,<br> Pour forth thy fervours for a healthful mind, <br> Obedient passions, and a will <span class=SpellE>resign d</span>; ...<br> For faith, that panting for a happier seat,<br> Counts death kind Nature s signal for retreat ...<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Hobbes</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), English political philosopher, author of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Leviathan</i>. In effect a materialist and atheist, he considered self-interest as the ultimate basis of all human action and hence argued for the need of restraint by a strong hand of authority.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>14/29] to penetrate the whole</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>the mystical slaying of the Lamb  </span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>before</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'> the foundation of the world </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Revelation 13:8.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>And all that dwell upon the earth shall worship him, whose names are not written in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[14/32] almost the whole of Christian</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;layout-grid-mode: line'>a chapter in Rabelais ... </span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>the Tales of Edgar Allan Poe<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;layout-grid-mode:line'> Franois Rabelais (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>c. </i>1494-1553), French writer, author of <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Gargantua</i></span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> et Pantagruel</i> (1534).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'> </span></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'>Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849), U.S. writer, poet and critic, author of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque</i> (1840).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span>The joint mention of the two writers reflects the  two facts mentioned in the paragraph s first sentence: Rabelais represents the  coarse jokes , Poe the  uncanniness of the dead.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[14/35] and one can see</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'> In the day ye eat of that </span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>fruit</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'> ye shall die <o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Genesis 2:16-17.[<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>And the Lord[ God commanded the man, saying, Of every tree, of the garden thou <span class=SpellE>mayest</span> freely eat: but of the tree of the knowledge of good an evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou <span class=SpellE>eatest</span> thereof thou shalt surely die.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Martha says to Christ<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>John 11:39.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Jesus said, take ye away the stone. Martha, the sister of him that was dead, <span class=SpellE>saith</span> unto him, Lord, by this time he <span class=SpellE>stinketh</span>: for he hath been dead four days.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'> I am not so much afraid of death as ashamed of it, said Sir Thomas Browne<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Religio</span></i></span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'> Medici</span></i><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'> (1642), I.40 (p. 45 in the Everyman edition):<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>... yet I have one part of modesty, which I have seldom discovered in another, that is (to speak <span class=SpellE>truely</span>), I am not so much afraid of death, as ashamed thereof. </span><span class=SpellE><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'></span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>T</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>is</span></span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> the very disgrace and ignominy of our natures, that in a moment can so disfigure us, that our nearest friends, Wife, and Children, stand afraid, and start at us: the Birds and Beasts of the field, that before in a natural fear obeyed us, forgetting all allegiance, begin to prey upon us.</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>The same quotation appears in Lewis s essays  The Grand Miracle (1945), which is an earlier version of the present chapter, and  Some Thoughts (1948), as well as in a letter to Ruth Pitter of 12 February 1947 (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Collected Letters</i> II, 763). The passage in Browne may well have resonated with Lewis s own early experience when his mother died in 1908. As he described in his autobiography, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Surprised by Joy </i>(1955), chapter 1:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:104.9pt;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>I was taken into the bedroom where my mother lay dead; as they said,  to see her , in reality, as I at once knew, </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'></span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'> to see it . There was nothing that a grown-up would call disfigurement  except for that total disfigurement which is death itself. Grief was overwhelmed in terror. To this day I do not know what they mean when they call dead bodies beautiful. The ugliest man alive is an angel of beauty compared with the loveliest of the dead.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'> The readiness is all </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Shakespeare, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Hamlet</i>, V.2<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>If it be now, </span><span class=SpellE><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; mso-ascii-font-family:"Arial Narrow";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'></span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>tis</span></span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'> not to come; if it be not now, yet it will come  the readiness is all.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>nightmare civilisations</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>In using this term Lewis was almost certainly thinking of Chesterton s book <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Everlasting Man</i> (1925)  a book that made him see  the whole Christian outline of history set out in a form that seemed to me to make sense (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Surprised by Joy</i>, <span class=SpellE>ch.</span> 14). In chapter 6,  The Demons and the Philosophers , Chesterton discusses pre-Christian spirituality<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>in four broad categories. The third category ( The Demons ) is described through brief sketches of the Aztec empire, of ancient Carthage, and of Carthage s Phoenician parent civilization  examples of a  nightmare type of mythology that was defeated by the  daydream type before civilisation could enter the stage of Christendom:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>... the idea of being worthy of the demons ... Sooner or later a man deliberately sets himself to do the most disgusting thing he can think of. ... This is the meaning of most of the cannibalism in the world. ... as a matter of fact some of the very highest civilisations of the world were the very places where the horns of Satan were exalted, not only to the stars but in the face of the sun. ... a South American idol was made as ugly as possible, as a Greek image was made as beautiful as possible.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:18.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 15.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>Chapter 15: <span style='layout-grid-mode:line;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Miracles of the Old Creation<o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[15/1] if we open such books</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Grimm s <span style='mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>Fairy Tales</span><o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>A collection of German fairy tales collected, retold and published in 1812-1822 as <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Kinder- und <span class=SpellE>Hausmrchen</span> </i>(Children s and Household Tales) by the brothers Jacob (1785-1863) and Wilhelm (1786-1859) Grimm, German philologists and folklorists.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Ovid s <span style='mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>Metamorphoses</span></span></i></b><i><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></i></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line; mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>A large, loosely unified collection of mostly Greek legends, by the ancient Roman poet <span class=SpellE>Publius</span> <span class=SpellE>Ovidius</span> <span class=SpellE>Naso</span> (43 BC <i>c</i>. 17 AD). Many of the stories involve some sort of  metamorphosis or transformation.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>the Italian epics</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>The great works of the Italian Renaissance poets Boiardo (1434-94; <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Orlando <span class=SpellE>innamorato</span></i>, 1487), Ariosto (1474-1533; <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Orlando Furioso</i>, 1516), and Tasso (1544-95; <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Gerusalemme</i></span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> <span class=SpellE>liberata</span></i>, 1581). Lewis wrote in glowing terms about these poets in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Allegory of Love</i> (1936), in the opening section of the great final chapter on Spenser s <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Faerie <span class=SpellE>Queene</span></i>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>15/2] it is this which<o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>as Tacitus, Suetonius, and Dion Cassius relate, Vespasian</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'> <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>performed two cures</i></b><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Vespasian was Roman Emperor, 69-79 AD, the first of the three  Flavian emperors, followed by his sons Titus and Domitian respectively.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span>The first two writers mentioned lived under and after his short dynasty, were loyal to it, and critical of previous emperors. Tacitus (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>c</i>. 55-<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>c</i>. 120) was a great Roman historian; and Suetonius (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>c</i>. 70- after 130) was the author of colourful biographies of all the Roman emperors down to Domitian (81-96), <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Twelve Caesars</i> (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>De vita <span class=SpellE>Caesarum</span></i>). Dion Cassius, or Cassius <span class=SpellE>Dio</span> (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>c</i>. 155-<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>c</i>. 235), a Roman writing in Greek, produced an 80-volume history of Rome from the earliest days until 229 AD on the basis of a fairly critical use of his sources.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span>Lewis is referring to the account of how Vespasian healed two persons in Alexandria, Egypt; one was blind and the other was lame (in Suetonius) or had a withered hand (in Tacitus and Cassius <span class=SpellE>Dio</span>). See Tacitus, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Histories</i> IV, 81; Suetonius, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Life of Vespasian</i> VII; Cassius <span class=SpellE>Dio</span>, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Roman History</i> LXV, 8.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>miracles are (in late documents, I believe) recorded of the Buddha<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span class=SpellE><span lang=EN style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Siddhrtha</span></span><span lang=EN style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'> Gautama, or Gautama the Buddha (the  enlightened one ), the spiritual teacher of ancient India whose teachings were the basis of Buddhism, lived in the 6th or 5th century BC. It is impossible to say which documents and miracles Lewis may have had in mind. It seems broadly true, however, that the more fantastic stories (including miracles) about the Buddha date from the advent of Mahayana ( Great Vehicle ) Buddhism and the use of Sanskrit rather than <span class=SpellE>Pali</span>, around the turn of the Common Era. Also, it was not until then that more or less full biographies of the Buddha began to appear.</span><span lang=EN style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><span style='mso-tab-count: 1'> </span>Teachings from earlier Buddhism (which came to be called Hinayana,  Small Vehicle ), notably the Theravada school, came to be preserved in the <span class=SpellE>Pali</span> Canon. As regards the Buddha s life and work, this large collection tends to be confined to isolated scenes explaining his spiritual experiences. The <span class=SpellE>Pali</span> Canon consists of three <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>pitakas</i></span> ( baskets ); the <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Sutta</i></span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> <span class=SpellE>Pitaka</span></i> ( Basket of Sayings ) contains, in the <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Digha</i></span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> <span class=SpellE>Nikaya</span></i> ( Collection of Long Discourses ), a saying of the Buddha in answer to a request for miracles:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;mso-ansi-language: EN;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>I&nbsp;dislike, despise and detest them</span></i><span lang=EN style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;mso-ansi-language: EN;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>In light of Lewis s remarks, it is interesting to note that the appearance of this saying in an early document suggests that a firm rejection of miracles was already relevant in the early centuries of Buddhism.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; text-transform:uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;text-transform: uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[15/2, Note] a consideration of<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Euhemerus</span></i></b></span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:3.0cm; mso-layout-grid-align:none'><span class=SpellE><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>Euhemerus</span></span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'> of Messene (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>c</i>. 340-<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>c</i>. 260 BC), a Greek writer, described an imaginary voyage to a far island where he discovered the origin of the (Greek) gods: they were found to have simply been praiseworthy kings or heroes of past ages who had been deified after their deaths. This kind of explanation for religion has since been called the  <span class=SpellE>euhemeric</span> critique of the gods , or  euhemerism . Only fragments have survived of <span class=SpellE>Euhemerus s</span> work, the <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Sacred Chronicle</i>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>diabolical illusion ... some of the Fathers</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>The view that non-Christian religions were elaborate systems of delusion designed and deployed by devils for use on humans, and that the pagans gods were actually demons, was notably expounded by the early Christian apologist Justin Martyr (103-165), in his <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>First Apology</i>. Later Church Fathers, including church historian Eusebius (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>c</i>. 263-<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>c</i>. 340), expressed similar ideas, which in fact lived on in Christianity for many centuries until the idea was secularized in the <span class=SpellE>Enlightenement</span> (see next note).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>priestly lying ... philosophers of the Enlightenment</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>The idea of priestly lying or  <span class=SpellE>priestcraft</span> as the driving force behind popular religion got currency during the early Enlightenment through the <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Histoire des Oracles</i> (1687) by the French philosopher Fontenelle (1657-1757); he depended heavily on a slightly earlier Latin work, <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Oraculis</i></span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> <span class=SpellE>Ethnicorum</span></i> (1683) by the Dutch physician Anthony van Dale (1638-1708). Their view was shared by British deists Matthew Tindal (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Christianity as Old as the Creation</i>, 1730) and John <span class=SpellE>Toland</span> (<span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Adeisdaemon</i></span>, 1709) and further propagated by later French <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>philosophes</i> such as Voltaire, Condillac, d Alembert and Diderot.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span>Lewis appears to be bracketing three critical views of  Myth because Myth is his own focus of interest. In fact the focus differed from one critic of religion to another: thus the early Enlightenment focussed on oracles. Nor were charges of  priestly lying exclusive to the Enlightenment, as Lewis has himself suggested in his novel <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Till We Have Faces</i> (1956), set in an ancient barbarian kingdom on the fringes of the Greek world in the third century BC.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>15/7] let us return to our</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>wedding feast in Cana</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Gospel of John 2:1-11.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Bacchus</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>The ancient Roman god of wine, known to the Greeks as Dionysus.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>to gladden the heart of man</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>cf. Psalm 104:15.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>And wine that <span class=SpellE>maketh</span> glad the heart of man, and oil to make <span class=SpellE>hsi</span> face to shine, and bread which <span class=SpellE>strengtheneth</span> man s heart.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>15/8] other miracles that fall</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>multiplication of a little bread and a little fish</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Gospel of Matthew 14:13-21 and 15:32-39, and parallel places in the Gospels of Mark and Luke.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'> The Son does nothing except what He sees the Father do <o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Gospel of John 5:19. It is the motto of this chapter.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>15/9] that same day he also</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'> thronging the seas with spawn innumerable <o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>John Milton, <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Comus</i></span> (1634), line 713.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>Wherefore did Nature pour her bounties forth<br> With such a full and <span class=SpellE>unwithdrawing</span> hand,<br> Covering the earth with odours, fruits, and flocks,<br> Thronging the seas with spawn innumerable,<br> But all to please and sate the curious taste?<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>a god called Genius</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>In his scholarly work Lewis discussed this deity as it appeared in several medieval writers and, notably, in Edmund Spenser s <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Faerie <span class=SpellE>Queene</span></i>; see Lewis s essay  Genius and Genius of 1936 in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Studies in Medieval Renaissance Literature</i> (1966), pp. 169-174; also <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Allegory of Love</i> (1936), Appendix, pp. 361-363.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>15/10] with this we stand</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Virgin Birth<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>i.e. the birth of Jesus Christ from his virgin mother Mary; see second note on chapter 7, above. Cf. Matthew 1:24-25.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.85pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:96.4pt;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Arial Narrow","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>... and [Joseph] took unto him his wife: and knew her not till she had brought forth her firstborn son: and he called his name <span style='font-variant:small-caps'>Jesus</span>.<span style='text-transform:uppercase'><o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>15/11] perhaps the best way<o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>one of the most archaic of our anti-god papers</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>The reference is perhaps to <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Watts s Literary Guide</i>, precursor of today s <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>New Humanist</i>. This journal was founded in 1885 by Charles A. Watts (1858-1946). See note to [10/3] <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Rationalist Press Association</i>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>Zeus lay with Alcmena<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>In Greek mythology, Alcmena was visited by Zeus in the guise of her husband <span class=SpellE>Amphytrion</span>. Zeus made the night three times its normal length for additional pleasure, gave a banquet, and fathered Alcmene s son Herakles (Hercules).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'>[<span style='text-transform: uppercase'>15/12] in a normal act of generation</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode: line'>recapitulate in the womb</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'> Recapitulation is actually a process which has a small place in scientific embryology. The German Darwinian biologist Ernst Haeckel made much of it in his contributions to evolution theory  too much for later science. Richard Dawkins in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Ancestor s Tale</i> (2004) states that recapitulation theory  is now regarded as a small part of what is sometimes but not always true ( Rendezvous 32: The <span class=SpellE>Choanoflagellate s</span> Tale ).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:3.0cm'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-he