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{mso-style-name:Standaardtabel; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} table.MsoTableGrid {mso-style-name:Tabelraster; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-priority:59; mso-style-unhide:no; border:solid black 1.0pt; mso-border-themecolor:text1; mso-border-alt:solid black .5pt; mso-border-themecolor:text1; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-border-insideh:.5pt solid black; mso-border-insideh-themecolor:text1; mso-border-insidev:.5pt solid black; mso-border-insidev-themecolor:text1; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} </style> <![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapedefaults v:ext="edit" spidmax="1026"> <o:colormru v:ext="edit" colors="#a8be7e,#a8be04"/> </o:shapedefaults></xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapelayout v:ext="edit"> <o:idmap v:ext="edit" data="1"/> </o:shapelayout></xml><![endif]--> </head> <body bgcolor="#A8BE7E" lang=NL link=blue vlink=purple style='tab-interval: 1.0cm'> <div class=WordSection1> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <table class=MsoTableGrid border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 style='margin-left:70.9pt;background:white;border-collapse:collapse; border:none;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184;mso-padding-alt:2.85pt 0cm 2.85pt 0cm; mso-border-insideh:none;mso-border-insidev:none'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'> <td width=227 nowrap valign=bottom style='width:4.0cm;background:#143904; padding:0cm 0cm 0cm 0cm'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-top:3.0pt;margin-right:0cm; margin-bottom:3.0pt;margin-left:0cm;text-align:center;line-height:130%; tab-stops:99.25pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%; font-family:"Trebuchet MS","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:white;mso-themecolor:background1; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><a href="../index.htm"><span style='color:white;mso-themecolor:background1;text-decoration:none; text-underline:none'>&nbsp;LEWISIANA.NL&nbsp;</span></a></span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:130%;font-family:"Trebuchet MS","sans-serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> </table> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.85pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:70.9pt;mso-para-margin-bottom:0cm;mso-para-margin-left: 6.44gd;mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:22.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-hyphenate: none'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:22.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:20.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";letter-spacing:-.1pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>Quotations and Allusions in<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-hyphenate: none'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:22.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:20.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";letter-spacing:-.1pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>C. S. Lewis, <i>The Four Loves</i></span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:22.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:20.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-hyphenate: none'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; letter-spacing:-.1pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>compiled by Arend Smilde<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:101.7pt;margin-bottom: 8.0pt;margin-left:99.25pt;line-height:130%'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.5pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>The Four Loves</span></i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.5pt; line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> (1960), like most of C. S. Lewis s books, contains many unreferenced allusions to a great variety of writers. It is perhaps never vitally important to identify his sources and explore them; yet doing so often turns out to have interesting results far beyond mere confirmation, or otherwise, of Lewis s accuracy.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:101.7pt;margin-bottom: 8.0pt;margin-left:99.25pt;line-height:130%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 12.5pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Listed below are most of the book s explicit references (including quotations) and many of the implicit ones (allusions ranging from the very obvious to the fairly mysterious), each followed by the fullest possible identification of the sources in question and a varying amount of further details.</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:12.5pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:101.7pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:12.5pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>References to paragraphs in the book appear in the format  VI2 for  chapter VI, second paragraph . Double question marks in bold type  <b>?? </b> mark those places where I feel as yet unable to give relevant or accurate information. Corrections and additions, including proposals for new entries, are welcome. <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><u><span style='color:#143904'><a href="#UPDATES" target="_self"><span style='color: #143904'>UPDATES</span></a></span></u></b><span style='color:#143904'> </span>will be listed at the end when there are any to report.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=right style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:101.7pt; margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:right; line-height:130%'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:12.5pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Utrecht, The Netherlands&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=right style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:101.7pt; margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:right; line-height:130%'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:12.5pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>14 December 2016&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:#760904;letter-spacing:-.1pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><a href="LewisianaFourLovesPDF.pdf"><span style='color:#760904;text-decoration: none;text-underline:none'>PDF version</span></a><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span></span></b><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";letter-spacing:-.1pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'>fit to print as A5-format booklet of 52 pages</span></i><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:#760904;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <div style='margin-left:70.9pt;margin-right:70.9pt'> <div class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center;line-height:130%'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> <hr size=1 width="100%" noshade style='color:black;mso-themecolor:text1' align=center> </span></div> </div> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:right 99.25pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><span style='mso-tab-count: 1'> </span>I<span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span><a href="#CHI" target="_self"><span style='color:windowtext;text-decoration:none;text-underline: none'>Introduction</span></a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:right 99.25pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><span style='mso-tab-count: 1'> </span>II <span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span><a href="#CHII" target="_self"><span style='color:windowtext;text-decoration:none;text-underline: none'>Likings and Loves for the Sub-human</span></a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:right 99.25pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><span style='mso-tab-count: 1'> </span>III <span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span><a href="#CHIII" target="_self"><span style='color:windowtext;text-decoration:none;text-underline: none'>Affection</span></a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:right 99.25pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><span style='mso-tab-count: 1'> </span>IV<span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span><a href="#CHIV" target="_self"><span style='color:windowtext;text-decoration:none;text-underline: none'>Friendship</span></a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:right 99.25pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><span style='mso-tab-count: 1'> </span>V<span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span><a href="#CHV" target="_self"><span style='color:windowtext;text-decoration:none;text-underline: none'>Eros</span></a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:right 99.25pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><span style='mso-tab-count: 1'> </span>VI<span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span><a href="#CHVI" target="_self"><span style='color:windowtext;text-decoration:none;text-underline: none'>Charity</span></a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Dedication</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b><i><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b><i><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>To Chad Walsh</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Chad Walsh (1914-1991) was an American poet, writer and scholar of English Literature. He got in touch with Lewis in December 1945 after reading <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Perelandra</i>. In 1949 he published <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>C. S. Lewis: Apostle to the Skeptics</i>, the first book-length discussion of Lewis and his work. One reader who got to know Lewis through Walsh s book was the American poetess and writer Joy Gresham Davidman, who eventually became Lewis s wife. <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Four Loves </i>was written during their short marriage; she died in July 1960, less than four months after the book was published. The dedication is not included in the 1977 Fount Paperbacks edition.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Epigraph</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Donne</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'>John Donne (1572-1631), English poet. The quotation is from  <a href="http://quod.lib.umich.edu/e/eebo/A69225.0001.001/1:57?rgn=div1;view=fulltext"><span style='color:windowtext;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>The Litanie</span></a> , a prayer of supplication in verse, stanza&nbsp;XXVII, line&nbsp;8.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 5.0pt;margin-left:99.25pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;That learning, thine Ambassador,<br> From thine allegeance wee never tempt,<br> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;That beauty, paradise s flower<br> For physicke made, from poyson be exempt,<br> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;That wit, borne apt high good to doe,<br> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;By dwelling lazily<br> On Nature s nothing, be not nothing too,<br> That our affections kill us not, nor die;<br> Heare us, weake echoes, O thou eare, and cry.</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><a name=CHI><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter I:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Introduction</span></a><span style='mso-bookmark:CHI'></span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:15.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>I1<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'> god is love <o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>St. John<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> I John 4:16.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>And we have known and believed the love that God hath to us. God is love; and he that dwelleth in love dwelleth in God, and God in him. [KJV]<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>I<span style='font-variant:small-caps'>.3<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>and what, on<o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Plato &  the son of Poverty <o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Ancient Greek philosopher Plato (428-347 BC); many of his surviving writings take the form of dialogues in which Plato s master Socrates is the main speaker. The reference here is to <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Symposion</i> 203b-e, where the priestess Diotima is speaking.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>When Aphrodite was born, the gods made a great feast, and among the company was Resource [Greek <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Poros</i>] the son of Cunning [<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Mtis</i>]. And when they had banqueted there came Poverty [<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Penia</i>] abegging, as well she might in an hour of good cheer, and hung about the door. Now Resource, grown tipsy with nectar</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>  </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>for wine as yet there was none</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>  </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>went into the garden of Zeus, and there, overcome with heaviness, slept. Then Poverty, being of herself so resourceless, devised the scheme of having a child by Resource, and lying down by his side she conceived Love [<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>ErMs</i>]. Hence it is that Love from the beginning has been attendant and minister to Aphrodite, since he was begotten on the day of her birth, and is, moreover, by nature a lover bent on beauty since Aphrodite is beautiful. Now, as the son of Resource and Poverty, Love is in a peculiar case. First, he is ever poor, and far from tender or beautiful as most suppose him: rather is he hard and parched, shoeless and homeless; on the bare ground always he lies with no bedding, and takes his rest on doorsteps and waysides in the open air; true to his mother</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'> </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>s nature, he ever dwells with want. But he takes after his father in scheming for all that is beautiful and good; for he is brave, strenuous and high-strung, a famous hunter, always weaving some stratagem; desirous and competent of wisdom, throughout life ensuing the truth; a master of jugglery, witchcraft, and artful speech. By birth neither immortal nor mortal, in the selfsame day he is flourishing and alive at the hour when he is abounding in resource; at another he is dying, and then reviving again by force of his father</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'> </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>s nature: yet the resources that he gets will ever be ebbing away; so that Love is at no time either resourceless or wealthy, and furthermore, he stands midway betwixt wisdom and ignorance</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>.</span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:6.0cm;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'>  &nbsp;<a href="http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0174%3Atext%3DSym.%3Asection%3D203b"><span style='color:windowtext;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>translation by H. N. Fowler, 1925 (Perseus Digital Library</span></a>). Original Greek names inserted.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>In Benjamin <a href="http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/1600"><span style='color:windowtext; text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>Jowett s translation</span></a> (1871), <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Poros</i> is translated as </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Plenty; </span><a name=1083></a><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Dutch translator Gerard Koolschijn renders it as <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Succes</i>. Thus Love is not just the son of Poverty (his mother) but also of its opposite (his father).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>I.4<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>i was looking</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>my master, MacDonald<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> George MacDonald (1824-1905), Scottish novelist and fantasy writer. One passage Lewis may be referring to is Nr. 332 in his <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>George Macdonald: An Anthology</i> (1946), a selection of 365 fragments from MacDonald s writings:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoPlainText style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>He was ... one who did not make the common miserable blunder of taking the shadow cast by love  the desire, namely, to be loved  for love itself; his love was a vertical sun, and his own shadow was under his feet.... But do not mistake me through confounding, on the other hand, the desire to be loved  which is neither wrong nor noble, any more than hunger is either wrong or noble  and the delight in being loved, to be devoid of which a man must be lost in an immeasurably deeper, in an evil, ruinous, yea, a fiendish selfishness.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoPlainText align=right style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt; margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:right; line-height:130%'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>  &nbsp;From MacDonald s 1879 novel <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Sir Gibbie</i>, chapter 59<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>I.5<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>first of all</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Humpty Dumpty & making words mean whatever we please</span></i></b><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></i></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Originally a character in a late-18th-century English nursery rhyme, Humpty Dumpty appeared in many works of literature and popular culture. Lewis is referring to <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humpty_Dumpty#In_Through_the_Looking-Glass"><span style='color:windowtext;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>a passage in Lewis Carroll s <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Through the Looking-Glass</i></span></a> <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>and What Alice Found There</i> (1871), chapter VI.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>&nbsp; When <i>I</i> use a word, Humpty Dumpty said, in rather a scornful tone,  it means just what I choose it to mean  neither more nor less. </span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:15.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>I.6<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>secondly, we must<o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> it is not good for man to be alone <o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> From the second Biblical account of the creation of the world, Genesis 2:18.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>And the Lord God said, It is not good that the man should be alone: I will make him an help meet for him. [KJV]<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>I.7<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>but thirdly, we</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> The highest, says the Imitation,  does not stand without the lowest <o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> From the Latin, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Summum non stat sine infimo  </i>a<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> </i>maxim often quoted in English by C. S. Lewis from <i>De imitatione Christi</i> (<i>On the Imitation of Christ</i>), II.10.4. This 15th-century religious tract, ascribed to Thomas Kempis (1380? 1471), is the most important legacy of the <i>Devotio Moderna</i>, a religious and educational movement which sprang up in the Eastern Netherlands in the late 14th century. The book preaches the virtues of humility, self-denial and personal piety.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>beating their breasts with the publican<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> After the parable in Luke 18:9-14.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>& Two men went up into the temple to pray; the one a Pharisee, and the other a publican. & And the publican, standing afar off, would not lift up so much as his eyes unto heaven, but smote upon his breast, saying, God be merciful to me a sinner. [KJV]<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Come unto me all ye that travail & <o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Gospel of Matthew 11:28.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:99.25pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Come unto me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. [KJV]<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Lewis is quoting Coverdale s translation from the Anglican <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Book of Common Prayer</i> ( Holy Communion , just after the General Confession and Absolution).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Open your mouth wide and I will fill it <o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Psalm 81:10.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>I am the <span style='font-variant:small-caps'>Lord</span> they God, which brought thee out of the land of Egypt: open thy mouth wide, and I will fill it. [KJV]<b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><o:p></o:p></i></b></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>I.9<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>we must distinguish</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>distinguish two things<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> The distinction between nearness-of-approach and nearness-by-likeness is to some extent prefigured in Lewis s pre-Christian philosophical tract of 1928, the <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Summae metaphysices contra Anthroposophos libri II</i>. Part II,  Value , addresses the question which Lewis faced as an Idealistic philosopher:  how any soul could become more spiritual without dying into Spirit altogether .<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>In II.3, he first submits that  the ideal function of souls is  to multiply consciousness from an infinite diversity of points of view, so that their very limitations are an added richness to the life of the Spirit , even though we are in fact  not created already fulfilling our function (which would be impossible) : we  begin our existence as creatures of passion . He then suggests that the soul s  ascent from this initial condition leads  firstly to one in which the object is seen as it really is (i.e. as it is in the mind of Spirit) and secondly to the consciousness that we as Spirit will the object . In II.4 he goes on to describe the latter condition as  qualitative equality with the consciousness of Spirit , and the ascent as an  approximation to that equality:  an account of the spiritual life is nothing but an account of the modes in which that approximation takes place .<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span>Lewis s <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Summa</i> was published in 2015 as part of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><a href="http://inklings-studies.com/buy/great-war/"><span style='color:windowtext; text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>The Great War of Owen Barfield and C.&nbsp;S. Lewis</span></a>: Philosophical Writings 1927-1930</i>, edited by Norbert Feinendegen and Arend Smilde (Inklings Studies Supplements, No. 1).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>I.12<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>at the cliff s</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>as a better writer has said<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> & <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'>??</b><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>I.13<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>I must now explain</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>M. Denis de Rougemont & </span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> love <span style='layout-grid-mode:line'>ceases to be a demon only when he ceases to be a god </span></span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:127.6pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Denis de Rougemont (1906-1985), Swiss Francophone writer. His book <i>L amour et l Occident</i><span style='mso-bidi-font-style:italic'> (1939) was first </span>published in English as <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Passion and Society</i> in 1940; an expanded edition appeared in 1956 as <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Love in the Western World</i>. </span><span lang=FR style='font-size: 13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:FR;mso-fareast-language:NL;mso-bidi-font-style: italic'>The quotation is from </span><span lang=FR style='font-size:13.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:FR;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Book VII, chapter 5:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:99.25pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:127.6pt'><span lang=FR style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:FR;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Ds qu il [l ros] cesse d tre un dieu, il cesse d tre un dmon.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt 127.6pt'><span lang=FR style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:FR;mso-fareast-language: NL'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span></span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Lewis reviewed the book in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Theology</i> vol. 40, June 1940, and in that same year and journal also referred to the book in his essay  <a href="../essayquotes/index.htm#culture"><span style='color:windowtext;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>Christianity and Culture</span></a> . (The review was reprinted in 2013 in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Image and Imagination: Essays and Reviews</i>, ed. Walter Hooper, and is available online at <a href="http://tjx.sagepub.com/content/40/240/459.full.pdf+html" target="_blank"><span style='color:windowtext;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>http://tjx.sagepub.com/content/40/240/459.full.pdf+html</span></a>.)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt 127.6pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span></span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>I.16<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>and this of course</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>the things the poets say<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> The beginning of the poetic and erotic tradition that Lewis has in view here was the subject of his first major book, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Allegory of Love: A Study in Medieval Tradition</i> (1936). Thus in the opening section he wrote (pp. 3 4):<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>an unmistakable continuity connects the Provenal love song with the love poetry of the later Middle Ages, and thence & with that of the present day. & It seems  or seemed to us till lately  a natural thing that love (under certain conditions) should be regarded as a noble and ennobling passion & French poets, in the eleventh century, discovered or invented, or were the first to express, that romantic species of passion which English poets were still writing about in the nineteenth.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>I.18<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>it follows from</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Browning, Kingsley and Patmore<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Robert Browning (1812-1889), English poet; Charles Kingsley (1819-1875), English novelist and historian; Coventry Patmore 1823-1896), English poet.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span>Lewis first read Patmore s <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Angel in the House</i> round about the time when he came to believe in God, June 1930. In a letter to his friend Arthur Greeves he commented (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Collected Letters</i> I, 902):<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>if, as he suggests, marriage &amp; romantic love is the real ascent to Spirit, how are we to account for a world in which it is inaccessible to so many, and are we to regard the old saints as simply deluded in thinking it specially denied to them? As a matter of fact he does seem to suggest in one passage that romantic love is <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>one</i> ascent, and imagination the other & <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>We live in reaction against this. The debunkers stigmatise & what their fathers said in praise of love<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Lewis s reference to the  fathers of the debunkers of romantic love suggests that he is repeating an insight which perhaps required updating by the time he wrote <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>The Four Loves</i>: the reference might have been made to grandfathers rather than fathers. In British terms, Lewis s  fathers were the late Victorians or  Edwardians whose children reached adulthood during or just after the First World War. These young-adult debunkers are portrayed in Lewis s first published prose work, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Pilgrim s Regress: An Allegorical Apology for Reason, Romanticism and Christianity</i> (1933). In this strongly autobiographical book, the hero at an early stage of his pilgrimage meets Gus Halfways, one of the  Clevers or anti-romantic characters, who shows him  a machine on wheels as a thing of beauty (Book II, chapter 8):<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; layout-grid-mode:line'> Don t you see? said Gus.  Our fathers made images of what they called gods and goddesses; but they were really only brown girls and brown boys whitewashed  as anyone found out by looking at them too long. All self-deception and phallic sentiment. </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> to the over-wise nor to the over-foolish giant <o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>John Keats (1795 1821), <i>Hyperion: A Fragment </i>(1820) II, 309 310:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:4.0cm;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>Or shall we listen to the over-wise,<br> Or to the over-foolish giant, Gods?</span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>In his 1943 Preface to <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>The Pilgrim s Regress</i>, Lewis quotes the same phrase in a broadly similar context.<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><o:p></o:p></i></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><a name=CHII><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter II:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Likings and Loves for the Sub-Human</span></a><span style='mso-bookmark:CHII'></span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>II2<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>now it is<o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>a very old discovery that pleasures can be divided into two classes</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> See for example Plato s <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Republic</i> (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Politeia</i>), 584b.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>& I d like to show you pleasures which aren t products of pain & If you d care to consider the enjoyment of smells & you d see particularly clear examples, though there are plenty of other cases too.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=right style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt; margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:right; line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'>  &nbsp;translation Robin Waterfield, 1993 (World s Classics, Oxford U.P.)<span style='font-variant:small-caps'><o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; font-variant:small-caps;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; font-variant:small-caps;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>II.3<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>the resemblance between</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>the natural (a word to conjure with)</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> After <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>The Four Loves</i>, Lewis s next book to be published was <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Studies in Words </i>(1960). Each chapter of that book is devoted to one English word, tracing the </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'>history of its use and meaning and noting parallel developments of </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>parallel words in different languages. </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>The first and longest chapter deals with  </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>NATURE (with <i>Phusis, Kind, Physical </i>etc.)</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> .<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>the works of the Stoics</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>I</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>n ancient Greece, the Stoics were members of the school of philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium (<i>c</i>. 335 <i>c</i>. 265 <span style='font-variant:small-caps'>b.c</span>.), which lasted about 500 years. As Stoicism became a widely influential view of life in the first two centuries of the Christian era, its central tenet was that virtue and happiness can be attained only by submission to destiny and the natural law; hence the wider meaning of  Stoicism as indifference, or the attempt at indifference, to pleasure and pain. The  works which Lewis refers to certainly include those of Roman authors Seneca (4-65 CE) and Epictetus (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>c</i>. 50-138) and the <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Meditations </i>of Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius (121-180).</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>II.6<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>Shakespeare has described</span></span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Past reason hunted & </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> William Shakespeare, <a href="http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/sonnet/129"><span style='color:windowtext; text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>Sonnet 129</span></a> (ll. 6-7), on the evils of Lust:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:4.0cm;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Th expense of spirit in a waste of shame<br> Is lust in action & <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:4.0cm;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Enjoyed no sooner but despisd straight,<br> Past reason hunted, and no sooner had,<br> Past reason hated as a swallowed bait & <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>II.9<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>how the need-pleasures</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> The Devil was sick, the Devil a monk would be </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> An originally medieval Latin proverb,<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:99.25pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=FR style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: FR;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Aegrotavit daemon, monachus tunc esse volebat; daemon convaluit, daemon ut ante fuit.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:99.25pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>( When the Devil was ill, he wished to be a monk; when the Devil recovered, he was a Devil just as before. )<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>French and English versions date back at least to the sixteenth century. Lewis may have been remembering </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Rabelais, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Gargantua et Pantagruel</i>, Book IV (1552), chapter 24, in the translation of Peter Antony Motteux (1708):<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:4.0cm;line-height:130%;tab-stops:45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The devil was sick, the devil a monk would be;<br> <span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The devil was well, the devil a monk was he.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> danger, necessity, or tribulation </span></i></b><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></i></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> From  The Litany , or General Supplication, in the Church of England s <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Book of Common Prayer</i> (1662):<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>That it may please thee to succour, help, and comfort all that are in danger, necessity, and tribulation, we beseech thee to hear us, good Lord.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>II.12<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>and, as we have<o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>a cup of water that the wounded Sidney sacrifices</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Sir Philip Sidney (1554-1586), English poet, soldier and diplomat. He died in Arnhem from wounds </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>sustained during military action against Spanish forces near Zutphen, in the eastern Low Countries. His biographer Fulke Greville (1554-1628), in </span><i><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>The Life of the Renowned Sir Philip Sidney</span></i><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'> (1652), chapter 12, p. 145, recounts how Sidney<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>being thirstie with excess of bleeding, & called for drink, which was presently brought him; but as he was putting the bottle to his mouth he saw a poor Souldier carryed along & ghastly casting up his eyes at the bottle. Which Sir <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Philip</i> perceiving, took it from his head, before he drank, and delivered it<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>to the poor man, with these words, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Thy necessity is yet greater than mine</i>.</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> very good </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Genesis 1:31, conclusion of the Bible s first creation story.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. [KJV]<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>II.14<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>need-love cries to</span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><o:p></o:p></i></b></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> We give thanks to thee for thy great glory <o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> A line from  Gloria in excelsis Deo ( Glory to God in the highest ), an ancient Christian hymn whose Latin version became part of the Roman Catholic Mass. The Latin text of this line is <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Gratias agimus tibi propter magnam gloriam tuam</i>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>II.15<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>we murder to<o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>murder to dissect</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> From a poem by the English poet William Wordsworth (1770-1850),  The Tables Turned (1798), penultimate stanza:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:4.0cm;line-height:130%;tab-stops:45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Sweet is the lore which Nature brings;<br> Our meddling intellect<br> Mis-shapes the beauteous forms of things:  <br> We murder to dissect.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>II.16<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>for some people</span></span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Wordsworth & </span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> a comparison of scene with scene &  meagre novelties of colour and proportion & the  moods of time and season </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> From Wordsworth s long autobiographical poem, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Prelude</i>, Book XII  Imagination and Taste, how impaired and restored , lines 115-117. This is a passage in which the poet makes apologies to the  Soul of Nature for a past period when,  through presumption , he had been insensible to nature s  glory : he had been<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:4.0cm;line-height:130%;tab-stops:45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>&nbsp;even in pleasure pleased<br> Unworthily, disliking here, and there<br> Liking; by rules of mimic art transferred<br> To things above all art; but more,  for this,<br> Although a strong infection of the age,<br> Was never much my habit  giving way<br> To a comparison of scene with scene,<br> Bent overmuch on superficial things,<br> Pampering myself with meagre novelties<br> Of colour and proportion; to the moods<br> Of time and season, to the moral power,<br> The affections and the spirit of the place,<br> Insensible.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>II.17<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>it is the  moods </span></span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> visionary dreariness <o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Another quotation from Wordsworth s <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Prelude</i>, Book XII:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoEndnoteText style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:4.0cm;line-height:130%;mso-hyphenate:none;tab-stops:127.6pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;It was, in truth,<br> an ordinary sight; but I should need<br> Colours and words that are unknown to man,<br> To paint the visionary dreariness<br> Which, while I looked all round for my lost guide,<br> Invested moorland waste, and naked</span><span lang=EN-GB style='mso-bidi-font-size: 11.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'> pool ...</span><span class=MsoHyperlink><span lang=EN-US style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt; line-height:130%;color:windowtext;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;text-decoration:none; text-underline:none'><o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>II.18<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>This experience, like</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> impulse from a vernal wood </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Another quotation from Wordsworth s poem<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span> The Tables Turned (cf. note to II.15, above), sixth stanza:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:4.0cm;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>One impulse from a vernal wood<br> May teach you more of man,<br> Of moral evil and of good,<br> Than all the sages can.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>II.19<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>if they were</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> the dark gods in the blood </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> & <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'>??</b><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>II.26<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>but we need</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>an East End parish<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> The  East End of London is a variously defined area of England s capital, north of the Thames and east of the City. In the course of the 19th century the East End acquired a reputation for overcrowding, poverty, disease and criminality.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>II.27<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>i need not say</span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'><o:p></o:p></i></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Coleridge & insensible</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834) English poet and philosopher. & <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'>??</b><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Wordsworth & the glory had passed away</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-1.0cm;line-height: 130%;mso-hyphenate:none'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> A reference to Wordsworth s poem <span style='letter-spacing:-.1pt'> Ode: Intimations of Immortality from recollections of early childhood , II.<o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:3.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 5.0pt;margin-left:4.0cm;line-height:130%;mso-hyphenate:none'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:8.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";letter-spacing:-.1pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;& & <br> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Waters on a starry night<br> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Are beautiful and fair;<br> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;The sunshine is a glorious birth;<br> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;But yet I know, where er I go,<br> That there hath passed away a glory from the earth.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-hyphenate: none'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";letter-spacing:-.1pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'>The  Ode was published in 1807. In stating that Coleridge and Wordsworth  ended by losing their previous delight in nature, Lewis is not referring to the end of their lives.<br> <span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span>The same line from Wordsworth appears in his autobiography <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Surprised by Joy</i> (1955), chapter XI, first paragraph, as Lewis explains the process which he later calls  the inherent dialectic of desire (ch. XIV, par. 11); on the book s last page he once more alludes to Wordsworth s  visionary gleam and how it  passed away . On the  dialectic of desire see also note to VI.1, below.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>II.28<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>i turn now to<o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Christ s lament over Jerusalem</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Gospel of Matthew 23:37-39, and Luke 13:34-35.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, you who kill the prophets and stone those sent to you, how often I have longed to gather your children together, as a hen gathers her chicks under her wings, but you were not willing. Look, you house is left to you desolate. For I tell you, you will not see me again until you say,  Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>II.31<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>first, there is</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Kipling s  I do not love my empire s foes </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936), English poet, short-story writer, and Noble laureate for Literature 1907. Lewis quotes the first line of Kipling s poem  Piet , the monologue of an English soldier during the Boer War ( Piet is the typical name of a Boer):<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:4.0cm;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>I do not love my empires foes,<br> &nbsp;&nbsp; Nor call  em angels; still,<br> What is the sense of  atin those<br> &nbsp;&nbsp;  Oom you are paid to kill?<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>As Chesterton says & reasons for not wanting his house to be burnt down</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> & <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'>??</b><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>II.32 |<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>it would be hard<o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>our Neighbour in the Dominical sense</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>  Dominical refers to the Latin word <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Dominus</i>,  the Lord . The commandment  Love your neighbour as yourself as spoken by Jesus Christ is recorded in several places in the Synoptic gospels, such as Matthew 19:19 and Luke 10:27. It is in fact quoted from the Old Testament, Leviticus 19:19.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>pluck out your right eye</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Gospel of Matthew 5:29, a passage in the  Sermon on the Mount .<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>And if thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast it from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell. [KJV]<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>II.34<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>the second ingredient</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Marathon & Waterloo</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Marathon, a village to the east of Athens in ancient Greece, was the site of a major Greek military victory over the Persians in 490 B.C. Waterloo, south of Brussels in present-day Belgium, was the site of a British (and Prussian) victory over the French under Napoleon in 1815.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> We must be free or die who speak the tongue that Shakepeare spoke </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> From Wordsworth s  Poems Dedicated to National Independence and Liberty , XVI:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:4.0cm;line-height:130%;tab-stops:45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>It is not to be thought of that the Flood<br> Of British freedom, & <br> & <br> Should perish; and to evil and to good<br> Be lost for ever. In our halls is hung<br> Armoury of the invincible Knights of old:<br> We must be free or die, who speak the tongue<br> That Shakspeare spake; the faith and morals hold<br> Which Milton held.  In everything we are sprung<br> Of Earth s first blood, have titles manifold.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>II.36 |<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>i think it is</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Deeds that</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> won the Empire </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Probably a reference to <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><a href="https://archive.org/details/deedsthatwonempi00fitcuoft"><span style='color:windowtext;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>Deeds that Won the Empire</span></a>: Historic Battle Scenes</i> (1897), a bestselling book by William Henry Fitchett (1841-1928), an English-Australian journalist and Methodist minster .<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Our Island Story</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'><a href="https://archive.org/details/ourislandstoryhi00marsuoft"><span style='color:windowtext;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>Our Island Story</span></a>: A History of England<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>for Boys and Girls </i>(1905) by Henrietta Elizabeth Marshall (1867-1941) with illustrations by A. S. Forrest. The coloured pictures can be seen in the edition available at Archive.org.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>II.38<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>this brings us</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> white man s burden </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>  The White Man s Burden is a poem by Rudyard Kipling published in 1899. It was written in </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>response to the American takeover of the Philippines from Spain in the previous </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-bidi-font-style: italic'>year. Lewis s comment is well reflected by the first of its seven stanzas:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:4.0cm;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span class=hbodytext><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>Take up the White Man s burden  <br> Send forth the best ye breed  <br> Go bind your sons to exile<br> To serve your captives need;<br> To wait in heavy harness,<br> On fluttered folk and wild  <br> Your new-caught, sullen peoples,<br> Half-devil and half-child.</span></span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>I.C.S.</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Imperial Civil Service, or Indian Civil Service: the British government for India in the period 1858-1947, headed by the Secretary of State for India.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> wider still and wider </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> A phrase </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>from the chorus of  Land of Hope and Glory (the patriotic song mentioned two pages further on):<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:4.0cm;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>Land of Hope and Glory, Mother of the Free,<br> How shall we extol thee, who are born of thee?<br> Wider still and wider shall thy bounds be set;<br> God, who made thee mighty, make thee mightier yet.</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Redskins<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>Informal term for American Indians, as opposed to the  palefaces or white settlers.</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Tasmanians</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> The aboriginal population of Tasmania, the island state south of Australia. During the so-called  Black War between the Tasmanians and British colonists, around</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> 1830, the native population was almost completely annihilated.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Belsen</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Short for Bergen-Belsen, the name of a German concentration camp in the years 1943-45.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Amritsar</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>&nbsp;City in nort-western India (Punjab); site of a massacre on 13 April 1919, when troops of the British Indian Army opened fire on a crowd of civilians.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Black and Tans<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoEndnoteText style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'> British volunteer army put into action against the Irish Republican Army (IRA) in 1920.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Apartheid</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> A political system of racial segregation and white minority rule in South African in the period 1948-1994.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>II.39<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>| <span style='font-variant:small-caps'>finally we reach<o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chesterton & Kipling & If England was what England seems</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> G. K. Chesterton, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Heretics</i> (1905), chapter 3,  On Mr. Rudyard Kipling and Making the World Small .<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.2pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-para-margin-top:4.0pt; mso-para-margin-right:70.9pt;mso-para-margin-bottom:0cm;mso-para-margin-left: 9.02gd;mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>He admires England, but he does not love her; for we admire things with reasons, but love them without reasons. He admires England because she is strong, not because she is English. There is no harshness in saying this, for, to do him justice, he avows it with his usual picturesque candour. In a very interesting poem, he says that  <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:127.6pt;mso-para-margin-top:6.0pt;mso-para-margin-right:70.9pt; mso-para-margin-bottom:6.0pt;mso-para-margin-left:11.6gd;line-height:130%'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span> If England was what England seems <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.2pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:70.9pt;mso-para-margin-bottom:0cm;mso-para-margin-left: 9.02gd;mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span> that is, </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>weak and inefficient; if England were not what (as he believes) she is  that is, powerful and practical  <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:127.6pt;mso-para-margin-top:6.0pt;mso-para-margin-right:70.9pt; mso-para-margin-bottom:6.0pt;mso-para-margin-left:11.6gd;line-height:130%'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span> How quick we d chuck  er! But she ain t! <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:99.2pt;mso-para-margin-top:0cm;mso-para-margin-right:70.9pt; mso-para-margin-bottom:4.0pt;mso-para-margin-left:9.02gd;line-height:130%; tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>He admits, that is, that his devotion is the result of a criticism, and this is quite enough to put it in another category altogether from the patriotism of the Boers, whom he hounded down in South Africa. In speaking of the really patriotic peoples, such as the Irish, he has some difficulty in keeping a shrill irritation out of his language. The frame of mind which he really describes with beauty and nobility is the frame of mind of the cosmopolitan man who has seen men and cities.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.85pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:70.9pt;mso-para-margin-bottom:0cm;mso-para-margin-left: 6.44gd;mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>The lines quoted are from a four-line chorus in Kipling s poem  The Return (the monologue of an English soldier coming home after service in the Boer War), first published in the volume <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Five Nations</i> (1903), 210-213:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:113.3pt;mso-para-margin-top:4.0pt;mso-para-margin-right:70.9pt; mso-para-margin-bottom:4.0pt;mso-para-margin-left:10.3gd;line-height:130%; tab-stops:92.15pt'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>If England was what England seems<br> &nbsp;&nbsp;An not the England of our dreams<br> But only putty, brass an paint,<br> &nbsp;&nbsp; Ow quick we d drop  er!</span></i><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'> But she ain t!</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> No man , said one of the Greeks,  loves his city because it is great &  </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> The reference seems to be not to a Greek but to the Roman author Seneca the Younger (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>c</i>. 4 BC-65 CE),  </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Nemo enim patriam quia magna est amat, sed quia sua , translated by Richard M. Gummere in <a href="https://ryanfb.github.io/loebolus-data/L076.pdf"><span style='color:windowtext; text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>Loeb Classical Library vol. 76</span></a> (1920) as  For no man loves his native land because it is great; he loves it because it is his own. The translator suggest that Seneca is offering  a</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> slight variation of the idea in Cicero, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>De Orat</i></span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>ore</span></i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>I.</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>196 .</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>England, with all thy faults</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> From William Cowper s long poem in blank verse, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Task</i> (1785); about one quarter into Book</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> II.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:4.0cm;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;England, with all thy faults, I love thee still,<br> My country! and while yet a nook is left<br> Where English minds and manners may be found<br> Shall be constrained to love thee.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> a poor thing but my mine own <o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> A common misquotation from Shakespeare, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>As You Like</i> <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>It</i>, V.4. </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB'>When the court jester Touchstone describes Audrey, a country wench whom he is introducing to Jacques, he calls her <span style='mso-bidi-font-style: italic'> a poor virgin, sir, an ill-favoured thing, sir, but mine own. <o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Vichy</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>  Vichy France was a large south-eastern area of France under the collaborationist government of Marshal Ptain while the rest of France was occupied by Germany, 1940-44. It was called after the town in central </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>France where the  Vichy government had its seat.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>II.40<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>patriotism has then</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Don Quixote</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> By-name for </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>a deluded idealist who lives in the real world as if it were the world of his imagination</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>; eponymous hero of the early-17th-century Spanish novel, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Don Quijote de la Mancha</i> by Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616).<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><o:p></o:p></i></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>II.41<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>the glory of</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The British Grenadiers (with a tow-row-row-row)</i></span></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> A traditional British</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> marching song, first printed around the year 1750. The first of its five stanzas is<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:4.0cm;line-height:130%'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Some talk of Alexander, and some of Hercules<br> Of Hector and Lysander, and such great names as these.<br> But of all the world s great heroes, there s none that can compare.<br> With a tow, row, row, row, row, row, to the British Grenadiers.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Each stanza s last line includes the words  tow, row, row, row .<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Land of Hope and Glory <o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> An English patriotic song written in 1902 by A. C. Benson to music by Edward Elgar. See note to II.39, above.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>II.42<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>it will be noticed</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Moloch</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> In the Old Testament, Moloch is one of the pagan deities that were a constant detraction for the Israelites from the worship of Jahweh. The service of Moloch involved sacrificing one s children. See Leviticus 18:21 and 20:2-5, I&nbsp;Kings 11:7, II King 23:10. Jeremiah 32:35.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><a name=CHIII><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter III:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Affection</span></a><span style='mso-bookmark:CHIII'></span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:15.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>III.4<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>but </span></span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";font-variant:small-caps;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>even in</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> animal<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Gilbert White</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> (1720-93), English clergyman and naturalist, author of the famous <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Natural History and Antiquities of Selborne</i> (1789). Lewis is alluding to the end of Letter XXIV to the Honourable Daines Barrington:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:99.25pt;line-height:130%'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Even great disparity of kind and size does not always prevent social advances and mutual fellowship. For a very intelligent and observant person has assured me that, in the former part of his life, keeping but one horse, he happened also on a time to have but one solitary hen. These two incongruous animals spent much of their time together in a lonely orchard, where they saw no creature but each other. By degrees an apparent regard began to take place between these two sequestered individuals. The fowl would approach the quadruped with notes of complacency, rubbing herself gently against his legs; while the horse would look down with satisfaction, and move with the greatest caution and circumspection, lest he should trample on his diminutive companion. Thus, by mutual good offices, each seemed to console the vacant hours of the other: so that Milton, when he puts the following sentiment in the mouth of Adam, seems to be somewhat mistaken:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:4.0cm;line-height:130%'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Much less can bird with beast, or fish with fowl,<br> So well converse, nor with the ox the ape</span></i><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>White also used the Greek word <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>storge</i> in talking about animal affection, but used it for the violent affection which makes parents do anything to defend their offspring.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>III.5<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>some of the novelists</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Tristram Shandy</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Novel by the English author Laurence Sterne (1713-68), published in seven volumes in 1760-67.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Don Quixote and Sancho Panza<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Knight and servant in the novel of Cervantes (see note to II.40, above). As a plain man of conventional wisdom and no wisdom, Sancho Panza is his master s antipode.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Pickwick and Sam Weller<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Characters in Charles Dickens s novels <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Pickwick Papers</i> (1837) and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Master Humphrey s Clock </i>(1841).<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><o:p></o:p></i></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Dick Swiveller and the Marchioness<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Characters (husband and wife) in Charles Dickens s<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>novel <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Old Curiosity Shop</i> (1841).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>The Wind in the Willows<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Animal story and children s classic by Kenneth Grahame (1859-1932), published in 1908.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>III.7<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>affection, as i have</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Let homely faces stay at home, says Comus<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> John Milton, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Comus: A Masque</i> (1634), 748.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:4.0cm;line-height:130%;mso-hyphenate:none;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Beauty is Nature s brag, and must be shown<br> In courts, at feasts, and high solemnities,<br> Where most may wonder at the workmanship;<br> It is for homely features to keep home;<br> They had their names thence & <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>III.9<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>this blending and</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Professor Lorenz & King Solomon s Ring<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Konrad Zacharias Lorenz (1903-89), Austrian zoologist, founder of ethology, Nobel laureate for physiology or medicine 1973. Lewis read <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>King Solomon s Ring: New Light on Animal Ways</i> shortly after publication in 1952, and in a letter to Bede Griffiths expressed wonder at what he read there  on animal  especially bird  behaviour. There are instincts I had never dreamed of: big with a promise of real morality (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Collected Letters</i> III, 195).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>III.12<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>and now we are<o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>charity, said St. Paul, is not puffed up</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> I Corinthians 13:4; see note to VI.34, below.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; font-variant:small-caps;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>the Victorian novelists & is love (of this sort) really enough?<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>  Victorian refers to the reign of Queen Victoria (1837-1901) </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>of the United Kingdom</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>. </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Perhaps Lewis was especially thinking of William Makepeace Thackeray (1811-1863); commenting on Thackeray s novel <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Henry Esmond</i> in a 1942 letter to Owen Barfield (</span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Collected Letters </span></i><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>II</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>, 530) he wrote,<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:99.25pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>What a detestable woman is Lady Castlewood: and yet I believe Thackeray means us to like her on the ground that all her actions spring from  love . This love is, in his language  pure i.e. it is not promiscuous or sensual. It is none the less a wholly uncorrected natural passion, idolatrous and insatiable. Was that the great 19th century heresy  that  pure or  noble passions didn t need to be crucified &amp; re-born but wd. of themselves lead to happiness? Yet one sees it makes Lady C. disastrous both as a wife &amp; a mother and is a source of misery to herself and all whom she meets.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Lewis s rhetorical question seems to refer to the  poem called <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Love is Enough</i> <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> </i>by William Morris (a Victorian poet), mentioned at the beginning of chapter VI and alluded to in VI.6. See note to VI.1, below.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>III.13<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>i do not mean</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>that beauty, terrible as the Gorgon s</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Spectral figure in ancient Greek myth and legend. Of the three  Gorgons Stheno, Euryale and Medusa, the last was often referred to simply as  the Gorgon . They wore snakes in place of hair on their heads and had faces which turned the onlooker to stone. A <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>gorgoneion </i>was an image showing Medusa s head on the shields of Zeus and Athena, where it was considered to retain its petrifying power.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>III.16<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>now there is</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Mr. Pontifex in The Way of All Flesh<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>The Way of All Flesh</i> (1903) is a novel by Samuel Butler (1835-1902). Mr Theobald Pontifex and his wife Christina are the parents of the central character, Ernest. The charge of an  unnatural lack of love is found in chapter XXIX, as Theobald is musing about his son:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:99.25pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>He is not fond of me, I m sure he is not. He ought to be after all the trouble I have taken with him, but he is ungrateful and selfish. It is an unnatural thing for a boy not to be fond of his own father. If he was fond of me I should be fond of him, but I cannot like a son who, I am sure, dislikes me.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Lewis mentioned Butler s work as an example of the  savage anti-domestic literature of modern times in his 1945 essay  <a href="lewisiana.nl/essayquotes/index.htm#sermon"><span style='color:windowtext;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>The Sermon and the Lunch</span></a> .<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>at the beginning of King Lear<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> In the opening scene of Shakespeare s play <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>King Lear</i>, the old king wants to divide his kingdom between his three daughters. Goneril and Regan each receive a third part of the kingdom after improbably fulsome declarations of love. Cordelia avoids all exaggeration, thus provoking Lear s question,  But goes they heart with this?  <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:6.0cm'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; font-variant:small-caps;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Cordelia</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><span style='mso-tab-count: 1'> </span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Ay, my good lord.<br> <span style='font-variant:small-caps'>Lear</span><span style='mso-tab-count: 1'> </span>So young and so untender?<br> <span style='font-variant:small-caps'>Cordelia</span><span style='mso-tab-count: 1'> </span>So young, my lord, and true.<br> <span style='font-variant:small-caps'>Lear</span>.<span style='mso-tab-count: 1'> </span>Let it be so! Thy truth, then, by thy dower!<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>III.17<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>This assumption is</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Siegfried<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Legendary hero of Norse mythology, where he useually figures as Sigurd. As Siegfried, he is the eponymous hero of Richard Wagner s opera, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Siegfried</i> (1876), the third of four operas which make up the cycle called <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Der</i> <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Ring des Nibelungen</i>. Siegfried s foster father is the smith Mime.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>III.19<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>and all the while</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> If you would be loved, be lovable, said Ovid<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> the Roman poet Publius Ovidius Naso (43 BC-18 CE); the reference is to his poem <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>The Art of Love</i> (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Ars Amatoria</i>) II, 107.  Ut ameris, amabilis esto .<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>III. 24<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>once again it is</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> that no one give any kind of preference to himself. <o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> & <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'>??</b><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>the old proverb  come live with me and you ll know me. <o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> & <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'>??<o:p></o:p></b></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>III.25<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'> We can say anything</span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><o:p></o:p></i></b></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>its art of love</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Another reference to Ovid; see note to III.19, above.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Rudesby</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Archaic word for a rude, insolent person.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>III.35<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>mrs. fidget very</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>National Health</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> National Health System (NHS), the publicly funded British health care system introduced in 1948.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>III.38<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>it is not only</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Jane Austen s novel</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Emma</i> (1816) by the English author Jane Austen (1775-1817). Emma Woodhouse acts as a self-appointed matchmaker for 17-year-old Harriet Smith, an illegitimate child with no future. In the end Harriet marries the man who had proposed to her at an early stage and who is her own choice, not Emma s. Emma finds her own match only after she begins to fear that Harriet might become her rival for Mr. Knightley.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>III.39<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>but not all</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Wotan had toiled to create the free Siegfried</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Cf. note to III.17, above. Lewis seems to be referring to two main characters of Wagner s <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Ring der Nibelungen</i>,<i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'> </i>but not to the story in the opera cycle. Wotan is the King of the Gods. Siegfried, the most heroic male figure of the cycle, is Wotan s grandson by the incestuous union of Siegmund and Sieglinde.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>III.40<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>this terrible need</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Bosanquet &  to have a representative at the court of Pan </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Bernard Bosanquet (1848-1923, Oxford idealist philosopher), <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Some Suggestions in Ethics </i>(1918), chapter&nbsp;4, pp.&nbsp;79-80.<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><o:p></o:p></i></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:3.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>& our relations to the lower animals. That it reduces mankind, in their hope and destiny, to the level of the beasts that perish, has always been a cutting reproach against paganism or infidelity. But even if levelling up were here altogether inconceivable, it could not be right to deny a continuity which obviously exists. Everyone who has had a friend among dogs or horses or birds must have felt himself enlarged in sympathy and in faith and courage by having a representative, so to speak, at the court of Pan. Just because it lacks the intelligence directed to a whole beyond the individual, which forms the glory and the imperfection of man, the lower animal carries in itself a peculiar anticipation of the Absolute.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>III.45<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>how bad, i believe</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>the Roman poet &  I love and hate, </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Catullus (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>c</i>. 84-54 B.C.), author of about 116 surviving <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>carmina</i> ( songs ) including forty-eight epigrams. Lewis is referring to nr. 85, an epigram which is one of the erotic poems addressed to a woman called Lesbia:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:4.0cm;line-height:130%'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Odi et amo. Quare id faciam, fortasse requiris</span></i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>?<br> <i>Nescio, sed fieri sentio et excrucior.</i><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:4.0cm;line-height:130%'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>I hate and I love. Why I do this, perhaps you ask?<br> I do not know, but I feel it happening and I am tortured.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><a name=CHIV><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter IV:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Friendship</span></a><span style='mso-bookmark:CHIV'></span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:15.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>IV.1<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>when either affection</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>In Memoriam</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>  In Memoriam A.&nbsp;H.&nbsp;H. , a poem by Alfred Tennyson (1809-1892) first published in 1850. The author began writing it in 1833 after the death of his friend Arthur Henry Hallam at the age of 22.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Tristan and Isolde</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> A pair of lovers from medieval legend, whose exploits became attached to Arthurian romance. Their names are found in different spellings (Tristram, Tristam, Tristem, originally Drystan; Ysolde, Yseult); Lewis gives the names as used by Richard Wagner in his opera <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Tristan und Isolde</i> (1865).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Antony and Cleopatra<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> The Roman general Marcus Antonius (83-30 B.C.) and his fifth wife, queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt (69-30 B.C.), who bore him three children; their relationship inspired many writers including William Shakespeare (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Antony and Cleopatra</i>, 1623) and John Dryden (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>All for Love, or the World Well Lost</i>, 1677).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Romeo and Juliet<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Shakespeare s tragedy, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Romeo and Juliet</i> (1594), was based on 16th-century translations of a story that had long been well-known in Italian and French.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>David and Jonathan<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> The future king David as a youth, and his friend Jonathan, the son of King Saul. See I Samuel 18-20.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Pylades and Orestes<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> In Greek mythology, cousins who grew up together at the court of Pylades s father.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Roland and Oliver<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> In medieval European legend as conveyed in the <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Song of Roland </i>(<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>c</i>. 1100), Oliver is a friend of the Frankish hero Roland. They died together during the battle of Roncevaux against the Basques in the year 776.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Amis and Amile<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Another pair of friends from medieval European legend. They are the heroes of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Amis et Amiles</i>, a 12th-century French romance of friendship and sacrifice which became part of Carolingian legend ( the matter of France ). There are various older versions of the story in Latin, and later ones in other languages.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Philia & Aristotle<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Friendship is the subject of Books VIII and IX of Aristotle s <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Nicmachean Ethics</i>. Book VIII opens </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>thus (<a href="http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Aristot.+Nic.+Eth.+1155a&amp;fromdoc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0054"><span style='color:windowtext;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>1155a</span></a>):<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-hyphenate: none;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 11.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>Our next business after this will be to discuss Friendship. For friendship is a virtue, or involves virtue; and also it is one of the most indispensable requirements of life.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=right style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt; margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:right; line-height:130%;mso-hyphenate:none;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>  &nbsp;translation H.&nbsp;Rackham, 1926 (Loeb Classical&nbsp;Library)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;mso-hyphenate: none;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Amicitia & Cicero</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43 BC), Roman statesman, orator, lawyer, philosopher and writer; his dialogue <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><a href="http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cicero/Laelius_de_Amicitia/home.html"><span style='color:windowtext;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>De amicitia</span><span style='color:windowtext;font-style:normal;text-decoration:none;text-underline: none'> ( On friendship )</span></a></i> dates from 44 BC and is also called <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Laelius </i>after the main speaker in the dialogue.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>IV.4<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>but then came<o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> tearful comedy </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> From French <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>comdie larmoyante</i>, a later-18th-century genre of French drama that blurred the border between comedy and tragedy.</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>IV.9<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>lamb says somewhere</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Lamb</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Charles </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Lamb (1775-1834), English essayist and poet, in a letter of 20 March 1822 to William Wordsworth. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Deaths over-set one and put one out long after the recent grief. Two or three have died within this last two twelvemonths, and so many parts of me have been numbed. One sees a picture, reads an anecdote, starts a casual fancy, and thinks to tell of it to this person in preference to every other  the person is gone whom it would have peculiarly suited. It won t do for <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>another</i>. Every departure destroys a class of sympathies. </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>There s Capt. Burney gone!  what fun has whist now? what matters it what you lead, if you can no longer fancy him looking over you? One never hears any thing, but the image of the particular person occurs with whom alone almost you would care to share the intelligence. Thus one distributes oneself about  and now for so many parts of me I have lost the market. Common natures do not suffice me. Good people, as they are called, won t serve. I want individuals. I am made up of queer points and I want so many answering needles. The going away of friends does not make the remainder more precious. It takes so much from them as there was a common link. A. B. and C. make a party. A. dies. B. not only loses A. but all A. s part in C. C. loses A. s part in B., and so the alphabet sickens by subtraction of interchangeables. </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span></span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:155.95pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>  <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Letters of Charles and Mary Lamb, 1821-1842</i>, ed. E. V. Lucas (Methuen,&nbsp;London 1912), Letter 284, p. 608.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Charles is dead & Ronald s reaction</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Lewis s friends, the writers Charles Williams (1886-1945) and J. R. R. Tolkien (1892-1973).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Dante,  Here comes one who will augment our loves </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=FR style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:FR;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Dante Alighieri (1265-1321), <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Paradiso </i>V, 105.  Ecco chi crescer li nostri amori. </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>This is said of Beatrice, Dante s guide through the nine spheres of Heaven in the final, third part of his <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Divine Comedy</i>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> to divide is not to take away </span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Shelley,  Epipsychidion (1821), 160.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:4.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>True Love in this differs from gold and clay,<br> That to divide is not to take away.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>every soul & unique vision & That, says an old author, is why the Seraphim in Isaiah s vision&nbsp;& </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Lewis is referring to <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>The Celestial Hierarchy </i>by Pseudo-Dionysius, an anonymous early Christian author who perhaps lived in Syria around the year 500. In its 9th-century translation </span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>De coelesti hierarchia </span></i><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>(from the originally Greek </span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Peri ts ouraniou hierarchias</span></i><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>), this text provided Medieval Christianity with its standard view of the angelic world. The angels were thought to form a system of three  hierarchies of three ranks or groups each, nine ranks in total, with the Seraphim as the highest and nearest to God. The relevant passage is in chapter X.2:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>All angels bring revelations and tidings of their superiors. The first bring word of the God who is their inspiration, while the others, according to where they are, tell of those inspired by God. For the transcendent harmony of all the world has providentially looked after every being endowed with reason and intelligence and has ensured that they are rightly ordered and sacredly uplifted. In a fashion appropriate to its own sacred character this harmony has arranged the hierarchical groups, making due allowance for what is particular to each group, arranging them as we have seen as first, middle, and lower powers, and, finally, harmoniously managing them in a way suitable to the degree of participation in the divine which each of them has. Furthermore, the theologians tell us that the holiest of the seraphim  cry out to one another, and, it seems to me, this shows that the first ranks pass on to the second what they know of God.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=right style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt; margin-bottom:5.0pt;margin-left:99.25pt;text-align:right;line-height:130%; tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>  &nbsp;translation by Colm Luibheid, 1987<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:3.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>See also Lewis s <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>The Discarded Image: An Introduction to Medieval and Renaissance Literature</i> (1964), IV.C, p. 74; while Lewis talks there of  each angel , as he does here of  every soul , the <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Celestial Hierarchy</i> does not seem to consider each individual angel s vision to be  unique : it is the  ranks or  groups as such which pass on their visions to those below them.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>IV.10<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>the homosexual theory</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Hrothgar embracing Beowulf</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> In the Old English poem <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Beowulf</i>, the eponymous hero comes to the aid of Hrothgar, king of </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>the Danes, to rid his country of the monster Grendel. When Beowulf has accomplished this task, the two men take leave (lines 1870-1880):<o:p></o:p></span></p> <div align=center> <table class=MsoTableGrid border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 style='border-collapse:collapse;border:none;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184;mso-padding-alt: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;mso-border-insideh:none;mso-border-insidev:none'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'> <td width=522 nowrap valign=top style='width:260.8pt;padding:0cm 2.85pt 0cm 0cm'> <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:12.5pt;line-height:130%;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>Gecyste &nbsp;&nbsp;cyning elum gMd,<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:12.5pt;line-height:130%;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>oden Scyldinga,&nbsp;&nbsp;egn betstan,<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:12.5pt;line-height:130%;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>ond be healse genam;&nbsp;&nbsp;hruron him taras<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:12.5pt;line-height:130%;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>blonden-feaxum.&nbsp;&nbsp;Him ws bga wn,<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:12.5pt;line-height:130%;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>ealdum, infrMdum,&nbsp;&nbsp;Mres sw+or,<span style='display:inline-block'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'></span>t h[+]e seoan&nbsp;&nbsp;geson mMston,<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:12.5pt;line-height:130%;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>mMdige on mele.&nbsp;&nbsp;Ws him se man tM on lof,<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=DE style='font-size:12.5pt;line-height:130%;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:DE'>t h one brost-wylm&nbsp;&nbsp;forberan ne mehte,<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:12.5pt;line-height:130%;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>ac him on hrere&nbsp;&nbsp;hyge-bendum fst<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:12.5pt;line-height:130%;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>fter dorum men&nbsp;&nbsp;dyrne langa<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:12.5pt;line-height:130%;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>be<i>a</i>rn&nbsp;&nbsp;wi blMde.</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:12.5pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td width=539 style='width:269.3pt;padding:0cm 0cm 0cm 0cm'> <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:12.5pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>Then kissed the king of kin renowned,<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:12.5pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>Scyldings chieftain, that choicest thane,<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:12.5pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>and fell on his neck. Fast flowed the tears<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:12.5pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>of the hoary-headed. Heavy with winters,<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:12.5pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>he had chances twain, but he clung to this,  <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:12.5pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>that each should look on the other again,<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:12.5pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>and hear him in hall. Was this hero so dear to him,<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:12.5pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>his breast s wild billows he banned in vain;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:12.5pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>safe in his soul a secret longing,<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:12.5pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>locked in his mind, for that lovd man<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:12.5pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>burned in his blood.</span><span lang=EN-US style='mso-ansi-language:EN-US'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.5pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>  &nbsp;</span><span style='font-size:12.5pt;line-height:130%'><a href="https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Oldest_English_Epic/Chapter_1/Beowulf_26"><span lang=EN-US style='color:windowtext;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;text-decoration: none;text-underline:none'>translation by Francis B. Gummere</span></a></span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.5pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>, 1909<o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> </table> </div> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Johnson embracing Boswell</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Samuel Johnson (1709-84), English writer, poet, critic and lexicographer; and James Boswell (1740-95), his biographer. Lewis may be recalling a passage like the one where Boswell describes his own departure to Holland in late 1763 (Johnson and he had met each other for the first time in May of that year):<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>My revered friend walked down with me to the beach, where we embraced and parted with tenderness, and engaged to correspond by letters. I said,  I hope, Sir, you will not forget me in my absence. <span style='font-variant:small-caps'>Johnson</span>.  Nay, Sir, it is more likely you should forget me, than that I should forget you. As the vessel put out to sea, I kept my eyes upon him for a considerable time, while he remained rolling his majestick frame in his usual manner: and at last I perceived him walk back into the town, and he disappeared.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>centurions in Tacitus, clinging to one another</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=FR style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:FR;mso-fareast-language: NL'> Tacitus (c. 56-c. 117 CE), Roman historian. </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'>His two main works, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Histories</i> and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Annals</i>, cover the history of the Roman empire in the period 14-70 CE.<br> Centurions clinging to one another & <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'>??</b><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>IV.12<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>in early communities</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>As some wag has said, palaeolithic man & </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>& <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'>??</b><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Melville s Typee</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Typee: A Peep at Polynesian Life</i> (1846), by the American writer Herman Melville (1819-91). It was the author s first book, based on his experiences during a one-month stay on one of the Marquesas Islands in the South Pacific. Lewis seems to be referring to a passage at the beginning of chapter 21. Melville describes the daily visits which for some time he made to  the Ti , a building  </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>which was rigorously tabooed to the whole female sex :<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:14.2pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Although it was the permanent residence of several distinguished chiefs, and of the noble Mehevi in particular, it was still at certain seasons the favourite haunt of all the jolly, talkative, and elderly savages of the vale, who resorted thither in the same way that similar characters frequent a tavern in civilized countries. There they would remain hour after hour, chatting, smoking, eating poee-poee, or busily engaged in sleeping for the good of their constitutions.<br> <span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span>This building appeared to be the headquarters of the valley, where all flying rumours concentrated; and to have seen it filled with a crowd of the natives, all males, conversing in animated clusters, while multitudes were continually coming and going, one would have thought it a kind of savage exchange, where the rise and fall of Polynesian Stock was discussed.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>IV.13<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>what were the women</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Bona Dea</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> (Latin)  Good goddess , a divinity in ancient Roman religion, introduced during the early or middle Republic. Her rites were kept secret and participation them was restricted to women. </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>Even her true name is unknown and was apparently unknown in antiquity except to her followers.</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>IV.18<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>| <span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>in our own time</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Emerson & Do you see the same truth?</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-82), American essayist, poet and philosopher. In his two series of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Essays</i> (published in 1841 and 1844), no relevant passage is to be </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>found in the essay entitled  Friendship (First Series, Nr. 6), but Lewis may well be referring to  Self-Reliance (First Series, Nr. 2):<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Live no longer to the expectation of these deceived and deceiving people with whom we converse. Say to them,  O father, O mother, O wife, O brother, O friend, I have lived with you after appearances hitherto. Henceforward I am the truth s. Be it known unto you that henceforward I obey no law less than the eternal law. & I will not hide my tastes or aversions. & If you are noble, I will love you: if you are not, I will not hurt you and myself by hypocritical attentions. If you are true, but not in the same truth with me, cleave to your companions; I will seek my own. I do this not selfishly but humbly and truly. It is alike your interest, and mine, and all men s, however long we have dwelt in lies, to live in truth.</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>IV.24<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>it could be argued</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Mathematics </span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>effectively began when a few Greek friends got together</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Lewis is probably referring to the ancient Greek philosopher Pythagoras of Samos and the community of  Pythagoreans he founded around 530 BC in Croton in South Italy.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Royal Society</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Starting in 1660 as a  </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>College for the Promoting of Physico-Mathematical Experimental Learning with weekly meetings mostly held at Gresham College, London, to discuss science and conduct experiments, this is one of the world s oldest institutions of its kind. The developments leading up to its foundation were informal enough to remain a matter of some dispute among historians. The Royal Society received its name and privileges in the course of the 1660s in three successive royal charters. The  <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gresham_College_and_the_formation_of_the_Royal_Society#Gresham_College_group_of_1660"><span style='color:windowtext;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>Gresham College group of 1660</span></a> included the architect Christopher Wren; Isaac Newton was elected a Fellow in 1672.</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> the Romantic Movement</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> once was Mr. Wordsworth and Mr. Coleridge</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> The English poets Wordsworth and Coleridge; see notes to II.15 and II.27, above. In 1798 they jointly published a volume called <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Lyrical Ballads</i>. Although the first edition was a failure, this </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'>publication can in retrospect be seen as the starting point for the Romantic era in English poetry. In his <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Biographia Literaria</i>, chapter XIV, Coleridge later described his conversations  during the first year that Mr. Wordsworth and I were neighbours which resulted in this joint poetic enterprise.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Tractarianism<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> A name for the philosophy of the  Oxford Movement , </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>a 19th-century movement of High Church members of the Church of England which eventually developed into Anglo-Catholicism. The name derives from a series of publications entitled <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Tracts for the Times</i> (1833-1841).</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Methodism</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> A group of historically related Protestant Christian denominations, originally inspired by the life and teachings of the 18th-century Anglican clerics John and Charles Wesley and George Whitfield. The name  Methodism originated as a term of mockery in the late 1720s during the Wesley brothers undergraduate days at Oxford, when their approach to the spiritual and devotional life seemed overly systematic to some of their fellow students.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>IV.25<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>there is something</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>(in Aristotelian phrase) & not to live but to live well</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> For example in Aristotle s <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Nicomachean Ethics</i>, Book IX, 1170b, on the <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>number</i> of friends a man needs:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 5.0pt;margin-left:99.25pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>& if more numerous than what will suffice for one s own life, they become officious, and are hindrances in respect of living well: and so we do not want them.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Also Book VI (on Intellectual Virtue), 1140a:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'>It is thought then to be the property of the Practically Wise man to be able to deliberate well respecting what is good and expedient for himself, not in any definite line, as what is conducive to health or strength, but what to living well.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=right style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt; margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:right; line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>  &nbsp;translation D. P. Chase, 1911 (Everyman s Library, No. 547)</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>IV.26<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>others again would</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> bare is back without brother behind it </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> From <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'><a href="http://sagadb.org/brennu-njals_saga.en"><span style='color:windowtext;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>The Story of Burnt Njll</span></a></i>, or <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Njls Saga</i>, a 13th-century Icelandic saga, chapter 151.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> there is a friend that sticketh closer than a brother </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Proverbs 18:24.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 5.0pt;margin-left:99.25pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>A man that hath friends must shew himself friendly: and there is a friend that sticketh closer than a brother.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>IV.27<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>for of course we</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> unconcerning things, matters of fact </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> John Donne, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Anatomie of the World</i>, second part,  The Progresse of the Soule: The<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Second Anniversary (1612), line 285, on the soul s  ignorance in this life and knowledge in the next :<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:4.0cm;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>What hope have wee to know our selves, when wee<br> Know not the least things, which of our use be?<br> Wee see in Authors, too stiffe to recant,<br> A hundred controversies of an Ant;<br> And yet one watches, starves, freeses, and sweats,<br> To know but Catechisms and Alphabets<br> Of unconcerning things, matters of fact & <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>IV.32<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>in one respect</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>morris-dancing</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Morris dance is a form of English folk-dance. It seems to date from the 15th century, when it may have been part of a fashionable interest in supposedly  Moorish (i.e. African) spectacle.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>IV.41<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>secondly, there is</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> little senate </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Alexander Pope,  Epistle to Dr Arbuthnot, or Prologue to the Satires (1735), line 207. Pope is describing Joseph Addison (1672-1719), or  Atticus , as a writer of true genius but so jealous of his own literary fame that he would<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 3.0pt;margin-left:4.0cm;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Bear, like the Turk, no brother near the throne,<br> View him with scornful, yet with jealous eyes,<br> And hate for arts that caused himself to rise;<br> Damns with faint praise, assent with civil leer,<br> And, without sneering, teach the rest to sneer;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>and<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:3.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:4.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Like Cato, give his little senate laws,<br> And sit attentive to his own applause,<br> <span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span>& <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>IV.44<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>alone among unsympathetic<o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> after our own heart </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> The phrase probably goes back to I Samuel 13:14 (cited in Acts 13:22). The prophet Samuel is speaking to King Saul and referring to David as Saul s successor to the throne.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>& thy kingdom shall not continue: The <span style='font-variant:small-caps'>Lord</span> has sought him a man after his own heart, and the <span style='font-variant:small-caps'>Lord</span> hath commanded him to be captain over his people & &nbsp;[KJV]<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> the brethren </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Usual word for  brothers in the Authorized Version or King James Bible, published in 1611. Thus for example at the end of Paul s epistle to the Ephesians (6:23):  Peace be to the brethren .<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>IV.48<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>the danger is</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>what the Priests in Our Lord s time thought of the common people</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Cf. John 7:25-49. After the  chief priests and the Pharisees have sent temple guards to arrest Jesus, and the guards return empty-handed (7:45-49):<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 5.0pt;margin-left:99.25pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>&nbsp;&nbsp; Why didn t you bring him in? <br> &nbsp;&nbsp; No-one ever spoke the way this man does, the guards declared.<br> &nbsp;&nbsp; You mean he has deceived you also? the Pharisees retorted.  Has any of the rulers or of the Pharisees believed in him? No! But this mob that knows nothing of the law  there is a curse on them. [NIV]<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Knights in Froissart s chronicles & our standards today & </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Jean Froissart (c. 1337-1400) was a French chronicler and poet, and an almost exact contemporary of Geoffrey Chaucer. Froissart s <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Chroniques</i>, written in the last three decades of his life, are a record of European history from the year 1325 on, with particular emphasis on the war between France and England. Lewis was already reading the book in early 1917, as mentioned in a letter to his friend Arthur Greeves (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Collected Letters </i>I, 287). Froissart came up again in a 1932 letter to Greeves, and Lewis remembered learning from it  how much of the chivalry in the romances was really practiced in the wars of the period (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Collected Letters </i>II, 53). When discussing the 16th-century English translation of Froissart s work in his 1954 book <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>English Literature in the Sixteenth Century</i>, Lewis noted that it would be  not quite truthful to describe  Froissart as wholly indifferent to the fate of harmless and ungentle civilians. He further states there that  [Froissart s] theme is chivalry  the life of the romances reproduced as nearly as possible in the real world  chivalry in all its hardness, all its softness, and all its fantasticality (154).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><span style='mso-tab-count: 1'> </span>In an essay of August 1940, as Britain s war with Germany was reaching its first climax, Lewis stressed the relevance in modern times of the knightly ideal. He commended its starkly dual character  the frankly artificial blend of heroism and meekness  as a safeguard for civilized life. The essay was reprinted that same year as  The Importance of an Ideal , and much </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>later as  The Necessity of Chivalry in the volume <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Present Concerns</i> (1986).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>churls</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> An old word for farm labourers. </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>Like many such words (cf. boor, clown), it has become pejorative.  Churlish now means  mean-spirited, surly, ungenerous. </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>IV.53<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>this sense of</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Olympian & Titanic</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> In ancient Greek mythology the Olympians were the chief gods, with Zeus as the supreme god. They were considered to have their abode on Mount Olympus. Hence the  Olympian attitude is an extreme sense of superiority. The Titans were a family of primordial gods, descended from Uranus and Gaia and defeated by Zeus.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Knights Templar & Baphomet</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> The Knights Templar were a military religious order founded by Crusaders in Jerusalem around the year 1118 to defend the Holy Sepulchre and Christian pilgrims. Almost two </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>centuries later, the  Order of Solomon s Temple was suppressed and disbanded. One of the charges brought against them was that they worshipped a deity or idol called Baphomet.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>IV.54 <span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>my two nice</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> the Souls & Edwardian times</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> An informal but distinctive, mostly aristocratic social group in England in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It originated from a shared wish among some politicians and intellectuals to have an opportunity for social life where people could be trusted to avoid talking about Irish Home Rule. According to the Wikipedia article on <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Souls"><span style='color:windowtext; text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>The Souls</span></a> (December 2016), the group  </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>had faded out as a coherent clique by 1900 . Lewis s reference to  Edwardian times is therefore strictly inaccurate (King Edward VII s reign covered the years 1901-1910), but the extension of the term to include the 1890s is not unusual. One of the initial  Souls was Arthur James Balfour, the later Prime Minister and foreign secretary and author of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Theism and Humanism</i> (1915), a book which Lewis valued highly.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>IV.54<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>my two nice</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Mrs. Harris</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>&nbsp;A non-existent but extensively quoted friend of Mrs Gamp in Charles Dickens s novel <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Martin Chuzzlewit</i> (1844).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>IV.56<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>sometimes a circle</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Dust thou art and unto dust shalt thou return </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Genesis 3:19, God s speech to Adam after the fall and before Adam and Eve are driven out from the garden of Eden.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken: for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>IV.59<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>friendship, then, like</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Christina and her party in The Pilgrim s Progress</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'> <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>& the House of the Interpreter</i></b><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> John Bunyan, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Pilgrim s Progress</i>, Second Part (1684), passage at the end of the  second stage (just over one-quarter through this Part, marked by the song  This place has been our second stage ).<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><o:p></o:p></i></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>IV.60<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>for then it will</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> it is not in our power to love or hate </span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> From Christopher Marlowe s mythological erotic poem <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Hero and Leander</i> (1598), line </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>167, immediately after the description of how Hero in the temple of Venus opens her eyes:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 5.0pt;margin-left:4.0cm;line-height:130%'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>Thence flew love s arrow with the golden head,<br> And thus <cite><span style='mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi;font-style:normal;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>Leander</span></cite> was enamourd.<br> Stone still he stood, and evermore he gazed,<br> Till with the fire that from his countenance blazed,<br> Relenting <cite><span style='mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi;font-style:normal;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>Hero s</span></cite> gentle heart was strooke;<br> Such force and virtue hath an amorous looke.<br> </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;It lies not in our power to</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> love or hate,<br> For will in us is overruled by fate.<br> & <br> The reason no man knows; let it suffice<br> What we behold is censured by our eyes.<br> Where both deliberate, the love is slight:<br> Who ever loved, that loved not at first sight?<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>In his <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>English Literature in the Sixteenth Century</i>, pp. 486-488, Lewis celebrates this poem as completely successful in its limited way:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Hero and Leander & are nothing but lovers and have no existence apart from their desires. It is as if we were allowed to share in the erotic experience of two daemons or two wild animals. & [W]e see not the passion but what the passion thinks it sees & There is no nonsense about it, no pitiful pretence that appetite is anything other than appetite.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Christ &  Ye have not chosen me, but I have chosen you </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size: 13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> John 15:16, part of the  Farewell </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Discourse (John 14-17)<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>that Jesus gave to </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>his disciples (minus Judas) after their last supper on the night before his crucifixion.</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>IV.61<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>not that we must</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> God who made good laughter </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> & <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'>??</b><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Dunbar & Man, please thy Maker, and be merry & </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> William Dunbar (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>c</i>. 1460-<i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>c</i>. 1520) was a poet </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>at the court of King James IV of Scotland. The lines are from the last stanza of his poem  </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>Of Covetyce (=covetousness, greed). After a catalogue of miseries caused by  covetyce , the poet concludes:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 5.0pt;margin-left:4.0cm;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>Man, pleiss thy Makar, and be mirry,<br> And sett nocht by this warld a chirry;<br> Wirk for the place of Paradyce,<br> For thairin ringis na Covetyce.</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Lewis quotes the same lines in the nine-page section on Dunbar in his <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>English Literature in the Sixteenth Century</i>, p. 97.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><a name=CHV><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter V:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Eros</span></a><span style='mso-bookmark:CHV'></span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:15.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:15.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>V.1<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>by <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>eros</i> i mean</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>(following an old usage) & Venus</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Cf. a passage in Lewis s 1954 essay  Edmund Spenser, 1552-99 , in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Studies in Medieval and Renaissance Literature</i> (1967), 142:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>& in medieval allegory Cupid regularly meant Love (humanized, sentimental, refined, but not necessarily innocent); when they wanted to symbolize the mere sexual appetite they usually represented it by Cupid s mother, Venus.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>V.4<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>no one has indicated</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>George Orwell & preferred sexuality in its native condition</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Nineteen-Eighty-</i></span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Four</span></i><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'> (1949), Part II, chapter 2. Orwell actually mentions a political reason for his hero s anxiety to hear the desired answer:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; I adore it. <br> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;That was above all what he wanted to hear. Not merely the love of one person but the animal instinct, the simple undifferentiated desire: that was the force that would tear the Party to pieces.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>V.5<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>the thing is</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Lucretius</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Titus Lucretius Carus (94-55 B.C.), Roman poet, author of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>De rerum natura</i> ( On the nature of things ). Lewis seems to be referring to <a href="http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.02.0130%3Abook%3D4%3Acard%3D1073"><span style='color:windowtext;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>Book IV, 1073-1076</span></a>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 5.0pt;margin-left:4.0cm;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>Nec Veneris fructu caret is qui vitat amorem,<br> sed potius quae sunt sine poena commoda sumit;<br> nam certe purast sanis magis inde voluptas<br> quam miseris & <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 5.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Metrical translation by <a href="http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.02.0131%3Abook%3D4%3Acard%3D1073"><span style='color:windowtext;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>William Ellery Leonard</span></a> (1916):<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:4.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt'><span lang=EN style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN;mso-fareast-language: NL;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>Nor doth that man who keeps away from love<br> Yet lack the fruits of Venus; rather takes<br> Those pleasures which are free of penalties.<br> For the delights of Venus, verily,<br> Are more unmixed for mortals sane-of-soul<br> Than for those sick-at-heart with love-pining.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Lord, what a beastly fellows these Romans were! </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> From <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Peregrine Pickle</i> (1751), chapter 44, by the English novelist Tobias Smollett (1721-71).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>V.7<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>if we had not</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Milton & angelic creatures & who can achieve total interpenetration</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> John Milton, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Paradise </i></span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Lost</span></i><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'> VIII, 619-629; final episode of a long conversation between Adam and Raphael, the Archangel. Having talked of  his first meeting and nuptials with Eve and discussed it with Raphael, Adam ventures to ask,<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 5.0pt;margin-left:4.0cm;line-height:130%;tab-stops:45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Love not the heavenly Spirits, and how their love<br> Express they? by looks only? or do they mix<br> Irradiance, virtual or immediate touch? <br> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;To whom the Angel, with a smile that glowed<br> Celestial rosy red, Love s proper hue,<br> Answered:   Let it suffice thee that thou know st<br> Us happy, and without love no happiness.<br> Whatever pure thou in the body enjoy st<br> (And pure thou wert created) we enjoy<br> In eminence; and obstacle find none<br> Of membrane, joint, or limb, exclusive bars:<br> Easier than air with air, if Spirits embrace,<br> Total they mix, union of pure with pure<br> Desiring, nor restrained conveyance need<br> As flesh to mix with flesh, or soul with soul. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>See also Lewis s 1942 book <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>A Preface to Paradise Lost</i>, ch. XV,  The Mistake about Milton s Angels , pp. 109-110. As Lewis notes, the Roman poet Lucretius had pointed out that<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:99.25pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>men seek (and find) pleasure, in so far as they lust: they seek (and cannot achieve) total union in so far as they are lovers<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>and Milton may have been thinking of the passage in question (Lucretius, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>De rerum natura</i> IV, 1076-1111).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Love you? I am you </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Charles Williams, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Figure of Beatrice: A Study in Dante</i> (1943), ch. XI  The Paradiso , p. 204. Williams is noting Dante s peculiar use of verbs that are composed of the prefix  in  and a noun or pronoun, such as <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>incielare</i> (to  in-Heaven , III, 97) and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>indiare</i> (to  in-God , IV,28). Thus also, and most notably, in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Paradiso</i> IX, 80-81, as the poet addresses the heavenly spirit of Folco di Marsiglia:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 5.0pt;margin-left:4.0cm;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=FR style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:FR;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Gi non attenderei io tua domanda,<br> s io m intuassi, come tu t inmii.<o:p></o:p></span></i></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:4.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>I would not wait for thee to make demand,<br> Could I in-thee me as thou in-mest me.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:4.0cm;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;  &nbsp;translation Sayers/Reynolds, 1962 (Penguin Classics)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Folco s subsequent speech is the last episode of the poet s ascent through the sphere of Venus, or  third heaven . Williams comments that the poet s use of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>intuare </i>( in-thee ) and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>inmiare</i> ( in-me ) is  the most challenging case of this peculiarity, as it comes<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>at the very point of the earth s coned shadow on  the fair planet that hearteneth to love [<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Purgatorio</i> I, 19]. It is the very definition of all heaven, but especially of the heavens that are to follow; it is their mode of life. Something of this is known, on occasion, in the life of lovers; not, perhaps, in many; not, certainly, often. There is some kind of experience which can only be expressed by saying:  Love you? I <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>am</i> you. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>V.12<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>one author tells</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> a solemn, sacramental hymn </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> & <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'>??</b><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> pillar of blood </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> & <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'>?? </b>(cf. note to II.19, above)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Freud, Kraft-Ebbing, Havelock Ellis and Dr. Stopes</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Sigmund <span style='font-variant:small-caps'>Freud</span> (1856-1939), Austrian neurologist and founder of psychotherapy; Richard von <span style='font-variant:small-caps'>Krafft-Ebing</span> [not Kraft-Ebbing] (1840-1902), author of </span><i><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>Psychopathia Sexualis: eine klinisch-forensische Studie</span></i><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'> [ Sexual Psychopathy: A Clinical-Forensic Study ] (1886); Henry <span style='font-variant:small-caps'>Havelock Ellis</span> (1859-1939), English physician who </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>wrote on various sexual practices and inclinations; Marie <span style='font-variant: small-caps'>Stopes</span> (1880-1958), British plant palaeontologist, author of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Married Love</i> (1918) and cofounder of the first birth control clinic in Britain.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Ovid</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> See note to III.19, above.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>V.15<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>we must not be</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>the Aphrodite of the Greeks &  laughter-loving </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Aphrodite is the Greek goddess that was commonly identified with the Roman goddess Venus. <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Philommeids</i> (</span><span style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height: 130%'>t</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>),  loving laughter , </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'>is an epithet for Aphrodite in Homer s <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Ilias</i> III, 424, and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Odyssey</i> VIII, 362. It also occurs several times in the  Homeric <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Hymn to Aphrodite</i>, 45-167, when Zeus makes the goddess fall in love with the Trojan hero Anchises:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Therefore, when laughter-loving Aphrodite saw him, she loved him, and terribly desire seized her in her heart. & And laughter-loving Aphrodite put on all her rich clothes, and when she had decked herself with gold, she left sweet-smelling Cyprus and went in haste towards Troy & After her came grey wolves, fawning on her, and grim-eyed lions, and bears, and fleet leopards, ravenous for deer: and she was glad in heart to see them, and put desire in their breasts, so that they all mated, two together, about the shadowy coombes. & And Anchises was seized with love, so that he opened his mouth and said:  & &nbsp;neither god nor mortal man shall here restrain me till I have lain with you in love right now &  So speaking he caught her by the hand. And laughter-loving Aphrodite, with face turned away and lovely eyes downcast, crept to the well-spread couch which was already laid with soft coverings for the hero & <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=right style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt; margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:right; line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>  &nbsp;prose translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White, 1914 (Heinemann, London)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Tristan and Isolde & Papageno and Papagena</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Tristan and </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Isolde are the hero and heroine of a medieval legend of which many written versions have survived; see note to IV.1, above. Papageno and Papagena are a comic pair of lovers in Mozart s last opera, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Magic Flute</i> (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Die Zauberflte</i>, 1791).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>V.16<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>venus herself will</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Sir Thomas Browne &  the foolishest act &  </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Sir Thomas Browne, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Religio Medici</i> (1643), II.8.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>V.18<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>for i can hardly</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>rational animals</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> From Latin </span><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>animal rationale</span></i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>  </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'> a well-known definition of  human being in some ancient and medieval philosophers, including Seneca and St Thomas Aquinas.</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>V.19<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>man has held</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>the prison or the  tomb of the soul</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 5.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'> The body as the soul s  prison is a guiding idea of Socrates s last conversation with his friends, as recorded in Plato s dialogue</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> </span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Phaedo</span></i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> (cf. 62b, 66b-68b, 82e-83a).<br> <span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span>The  tomb idea appears in Plato s <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Gorgias</i>, 493a, which alludes to a phrase from the Orphic religious tradition, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>sMma sma </i>(</span><span class=greek><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EL'></span></span><span class=greek><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'> </span></span><span class=greek><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EL'></span></span><span class=greek><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-US'>).</span></span><span class=greek><span lang=EN-US style='mso-ansi-language: EN-US'><o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <div align=center> <table class=MsoTableGrid border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 style='border-collapse:collapse;border:none;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184;mso-padding-alt: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;mso-border-insideh:none;mso-border-insidev:none'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'> <td width=496 valign=top style='width:247.8pt;padding:0cm 2.85pt 0cm 0cm'> <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EL'>v</span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'> </span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EL'>!</span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'> </span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EL'></span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'> </span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EL'>D</span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'> </span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EL'>4</span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'> </span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EL'></span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>: </span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EL'>$</span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-ansi-language:EN-US'> </span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EL'></span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'> </span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EL'></span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'> </span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EL'></span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'> </span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EL'>v</span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'> </span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EL'>$</span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'> </span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EL'></span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'> </span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EL'></span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'> </span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EL'>a</span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'> </span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EL'></span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'> </span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EL'>!</span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'> </span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EL'></span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'> </span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EL'>v</span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'> </span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EL'>x</span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'> </span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EL'>r</span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'> </span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EL'></span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'> </span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EL'></span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'> </span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EL'>!</span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'> </span><span lang=EL style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EL'></span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'> & </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td width=439 valign=top style='width:219.7pt;padding:0cm 0cm 0cm 2.85pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>and we really, it may be, are dead; in fact I once heard sages say that we are now dead, and the body is our tomb & <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:17.9pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>  &nbsp;translation W.M.R. Lamb, 1967<br> (<a href="http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/"><span style='color:windowtext; text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>Perseus Digital Library</span></a>)</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> </table> </div> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>St. Francis &  Brother Ass </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> The term is recorded in Bonaventura da Bagnoregio s <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Legenda maior Sancti Francisci</i>, or <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Major Legend of Saint Francis</i> (1263), chapter 5,  The Austerity of his life and how creatures provided him comfort .<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><o:p></o:p></i></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>He taught the brothers to flee with all their might from idleness, the cesspool of all evil thoughts; and he demonstrated to them by his own example that they should master their rebellious and lazy flesh by constant discipline and useful work. Therefore he used to call his body Brother Ass, for he felt it should be subjected to heavy labor, beaten frequently with whips, and fed with the poorest food.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:5.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:13.3pt; mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>  &nbsp;translation from the Latin in <i>Francis of Assisi: Early Documents</i>,<i> </i></span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language: EN-US'>edited by Regis J. Armstrong, J. A. Wayne Hellmann, and William J. Short (New City Press, New York etc. 2000), Vol.&nbsp;II, <i>The Founder</i>, p.&nbsp;564.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>V.20<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>ass</span></i><span style='font-variant:small-caps'> is exquisitely<o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>a Touchstone and an Audrey</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Characters ( the court jester and  a country wench ) in Shakespeare s comedy <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>As You Like It</i>; cf. note to II.39, above.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>V.21<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>for indeed we require</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>gravis ardor</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:70.9pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> (Latin)  heavy burning . From the <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Carmina</i> of Catullus (see note to III.45, above), nr.&nbsp;2, line&nbsp;8.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <div align=center> <table class=MsoTableGrid border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 style='border-collapse:collapse;border:none;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184;mso-padding-alt: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;mso-border-insideh:none;mso-border-insidev:none'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'> <td width=434 valign=top style='width:217.2pt;padding:0cm 2.85pt 0cm 0cm'> <p style='margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%'><span lang=LA style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:LA;mso-fareast-language: EN-US'>Passer, deliciae meae puellae,<br> quicum ludere, quem in sinu tenere,<br> cui primum digitum dare appetenti<br> et acris solet incitare morsus,<br> cum desiderio meo nitenti<br> carum nescio quid lubet iocari<br> et solaciolum sui doloris,<br> credo ut <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>tum gravis acquiescat ardor</i></b>:<br> tecum ludere sicut ipsa possem<br> et tristis animi levare curas!<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> <td width=619 valign=top style='width:309.6pt;padding:0cm 0cm 0cm 2.85pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>Sparrow, favorite of my girl,<br> with whom she is accustomed to play, whom she is accustomed to hold in her lap, / for whom, seeking greedily, she is accustomed to give her index finger / and to provoke sharp bites. / When it is pleasing for my shining desire / to make some kind of joke<br> and a relief of her grief.<br> I believe, <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>so that her heavy passion may become quiet</i></b>.<br> If only I were able to play with you yourself, and<br> to lighten the sad cares of your mind.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:26.1pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>  &nbsp;translation Joannes Fortaperus, www.rudy.negenborn.net/catullus/text2/e2.htm</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> </table> </div> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> entire, fastened to her prey </span></i></b><u><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> From the tragedy <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Phdre </i>by French dramatist Jean Racine (1639-1699), Act 1, </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>twelve lines from the end of Scene 3.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 5.0pt;margin-left:4.0cm;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><i><span lang=FR style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:FR;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Ce n est plus une ardeur dans mes veines cache:<br> C est Vnus tout entire sa proie attache.</span></i><span lang=FR style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:FR;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left: 4.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>It s no longer an ardour hidden in my veins:<br> It s Venus fastening wholly on her prey.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left: 4.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;  &nbsp;translation by A. S. Kline,<br> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="http://www.poetryintranslation.com/PITBR/French/PhaedraActI.htm"><span style='color:windowtext;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>www. poetryintranslation.com</span></a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><u><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p><span style='text-decoration: none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>V.22<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>this refusal to be</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> lover s pinch which hurts and is desired </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Shakespeare, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Antony and Cleopatra</i> V.2, 293-4. Just before Cleopatra in this final scene kills herself by applying an asp (venomous snake) to her breast, she kisses her attendant lady Iras, who instantly falls and dies. Cleopatra then says:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 5.0pt;margin-left:4.0cm;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Have I the aspic in my lips? Dost fall?<br> If thou and nature can so gently part,<br> The stroke of death is as a lover s pinch,<br> Which hurts and is desired.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>V.23<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>i think it is</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>mystery-play</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> In the medieval Church, dramatic representations of parts of the liturgy, typically </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>centering</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> on a  mystery or miracle, gradually developed into full-blown religious plays and play cycles. In the 13th century they came to be performed on the market place rather than in the church, and the language changed from Latin to the vernacular.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>V.25<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>Some will think</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> if imagination mend them </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Shakespeare, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>A Midsummer Night s Dream</i> V.1, 210.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>V.26<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>but i dare not</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>notably Milton</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Possibly a reference to the passage already referred to in V.7. Adam has sung the praises of Eve:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 5.0pt;margin-left:4.0cm;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Greatness of mind and nobleness their seat<br> Build in her loveliest, and create an awe<br> About her, as a guard angelic placed.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>The archangel Raphael,  with contracted brow , responds:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:4.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>& what admir st thou, what transports thee so?<br> An outside; fair, no doubt, and worthy well<br> Thy cherishing, thy honouring, and thy love;<br> Not thy subjection: weigh with her thyself;<br> Then value: oft-times nothing profits more<br> Than self-esteem, grounded on just and right<br> Well managed. Of that skill, the more thou know st,<br> The more she will acknowledge thee her head,<br> And to realities yield all her shows & <br style='mso-special-character:line-break'> <![if !supportLineBreakNewLine]><br style='mso-special-character:line-break'> <![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>King Cophetua</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>A legendary African king who was uninterested in women until he fell in love with a beggar girl. A&nbsp;ballad on the subject was included by Thomas Percy in his <i>Reliques of Ancient English Poetry</i> (1765), II.6. The theme was taken up by Alfred Tennyson in his poem  The Beggar Maid &nbsp;&nbsp; </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:99.25pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>... <span style='mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>Barefooted came the beggar maid<br> Before the king Cophetua.<br> In robe and crown the king stept down,<br> To meet and greet her on her way ...</span></span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:99.25pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>So sweet a face, such angel grace,<br> In all that land had never been:<br> Cophetua sware a royal oath:<br>  This beggar maid shall be my queen! </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>V.33<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>there have been</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Plato&  falling in love is the mutual recognition & </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> & <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'>??  </b></span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height: 130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Lewis s paraphrase does not seem to reflect any of the views expressed in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Symposion</i>, Plato s most famous dialogue on love, or in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Phaedrus</i>, which deals with the same subject.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>V.34<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>|<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>a theory more likely</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Shavian & Shaw &  metabiological </span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950), Irish-English dramatist, Nobel laureate for Literature 1925. The first time he presented the idea of a Life Force that guides evolution was in his long play <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Man and Superman</i> (1903). He further developed it in the long preface to <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><a href="http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/13084"><span style='color:windowtext; text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>Back to Methuselah: A Metabiological Pentateuch</span></a> </i>(1921), as well as in the last (fifth) part, entitled  As Far as Thought Can Reach .<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>lan vital or Life Force</span></i></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> The French term got currency through the work of French philosopher Henri Bergson (1859-1941). In his book </span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; line-height:130%;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";letter-spacing:-.15pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>Creative Evolution </span></i><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; letter-spacing:-.15pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>(<i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>volution cratrice</i>, 1907), chapter 2, he defined the term as<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>an internal push that has carried life, by more and more complex forms, to higher and higher destinies.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:2.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 4.0pt;margin-left:99.25pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=FR style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-ansi-language:FR'>(<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>une pousse intrieure qui porterait la vie, par des formes de plus en plus complexes, des destines de plus en plus hautes</i>).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Shaw equated the terms </span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'>lan vital </span></i><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:130%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>and Life Force at one point in his preface to <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Back to Methuselah</i> (see previous note).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'>the  evolutionary appetite <o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Title of a section in Bernard Shaw s preface to his play <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Saint Joan</i> (1924), where he writes,<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:4.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>& that there are forces at work which use individuals for purposes far transcending the purpose of keeping these individuals alive and prosperous & is established by the fact that men will, in the pursuit of knowledge and of social readjustments for which they will not be a penny the better, and are indeed often many pence the worse, face poverty, infamy, exile, imprisonment, dreadful hardship, and death. & [The] appetite for knowledge and power & is an appetite for evolution, and therefore a superpersonal need.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:130%;tab-stops:92.15pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;line-height:130%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&n